Note: Some texts are buried deep in e-archives. If title link does not work, click source.

[ General Sources ] [ Language Tools ] [ Anatolia ] [ Egypt ] [ Mesopotamia ] [ Persia ] [ Syria & Palestine ]


The Code of Hammurabi

L. W. King's translation of the legal code promulgated by the ruler of Babylon in the first half of the 18th c. BCE [archived by the Avalon documents project of Yale Law School].

Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature

Oxford U's comprehensive e-archive of Sumerian literature posts transliterations, translations & bibliographies for myths & epics (including Inana's Descent, Enki's Journey, Enlil & Ninlil, the Flood, Gilgamesh) & prayers to deities.

Epic of Gilgamesh

Timothy R. Carnahan's electronic edition of M. G. Kovacs' translation of the 11 Akkadian tablets of this most ancient of epics. 

Gateways to Babylon

Elegant well-informed neo-pagan presentation of Mesopotamian culture & religion offers essay on Sumerian Religion & an extensive collection of classic myths, hymns & incantations, including many from hard-to-find texts.

Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Mesopotamia

Misleadingly named section of Paul Halsall's vast collection of links to academic quality e- resources covers Sumer, Akkadia, Assyria, Babylonia, but also the non-Mesopotamian civilizations of the Hittites, Syria, Phoenicia & Carthage.

Journal of Cuneiform Studies   

JSTOR's searchable database of digital editions of the premier scholarly journal of Mesopotamian studies. Registration required for access to contents of articles.

The Nippur Expedition

Reports on the excavations of the primary temple city of early Mesopotamia, including McGuire Gibson's 1993 article "Nippur: Sacred City of Enlil" (hyper-text with maps & photographs).



Avesta - Zoroastrian Archives

Joe Peterson provides an on-line version of Zoroastrian scriptures in both original language & translation: the complete Avesta (including the Yasna with the Gathas of Zarathustra) & several Pahlavi texts (including the Bundahishn creation account & the Denkard chapter on the life of Zarathustra). FAQ gives basic introduction to Zoroastrianism.

Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Persia

Paul Halsall's well-organized collection of links to academic quality e-resources on ancient Persia (Fordham U).

Manichaean Writings

Gnostic Society's Virtual Library posts prayerbooks (including psalms to Jesus & Iranian hymns) as well as Augustine's anti-Manichean writings.

Syria & Palestine

Al-Mashriq: the Levant

Børre Ludvigsen's exquisite encyclopedia of cultural riches from the countries of the eastern Mediterranean features an interactive map to sites in Lebanon with historical details, religious sources, archaeological guides and stunning images of Baalbak, Beirut, Tyre, Sidon, & the giant cedars [archived by American University, Beirut].

A Bequest Unearthed: Phoenicia

Salim George Khalaf's award-winning comprehensive study of the pioneers of Mediterranean culture includes discussions of Phoenician religion from the Canaanites to Christianity, including its influence on Solomon's temple & the Hebrew Torah.

Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Israel

Paul Halsall's well-organized collection of links to academic quality e- resources on ancient Israel. For some inscrutable reason links to Canaanite, Syrian & Phoenician resources are found in his Mesopotamia web pages  (Fordham U).

Palestine in the Time of Jesus Home Page

Visual aids & quotations from primary sources arranged to complement the book by K. C. Hanson & D. Oakman (Fortress 1996).


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This page was revised 27 January 2023


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