Note: Some texts are buried deep in e-archives. If title link does not work, click source.

[ General ] [ Method & Metaphysics ] [ Philosophy of Religion ] [ Ancient Philosophers ] [ Medieval Systems]
[ Enlightenment & Liberals ] [ Idealists ] [ Neo-Orthodoxy ] [ Existentialists ] [ Evolutionists ]

Enlightenment & Liberals

Benedict de Spinoza: Ethics

R. H. M. Elwes' 1891 translation of the Dutch rationalist's radical redefinition of theology (archived by the Gutenberg Project).

Benedict de Spinoza: Theological-Political Treatise

R. H. M. Elwes' translation of Spinoza's 1670 argument for religious freedom (archived by On-line Library of Liberty).

Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy

John Veitch's 1901 translation of Descartes' 1641 critical treatise that launched modern philosophy.

Good Sense Without God, or Freethoughts Opposed to Supernatural Ideas

Rationalist critique of religion & theology published anonymously in 1772 by radical French aristocrat, Paul Thyry, Baron d'Holbach (posted by Freethought Archives).

Readings in Modern Philosophy

Archive pages of Carl Mikelsen's gateway to on-line works of Descartes, Hobbes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Herder, Hume, Kant, Hegel & others (U of Idaho).

Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

Overview of the life & thought of the 17th c. Frenchman whose critical reflections on doubt, mind, God, & physical existence gave rise to modern philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy].

Hume, Kant & Rational Theism

Hugo Meynell's critique of rational criticism posted by the cyber-academy Leadership U.

Kant on the Web

Stephen Palmquist's list of Kant-related websites includes links to all e-texts of Kant's writings.

Voltaire's Philosophical Dictionary

E-edition of H. I. Wolff's translation of the rational humanist's 1772 irreverent challenge to ecclesiastical doctrines (Hanover Historical Texts).



German Idealism

Overview of the development of the dominant movement among German scholars from Leibnitz to Schopenhauer (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Georg W. F. Hegel

Garth Kemerling's Dictionary of Philosophical Terms & Names offers a gateway to resources on life & thought leading German idealist.

G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831)

Archived pages of J. Carl Mikelsen's award-winning Readings in Modern Philosophy  offer translations of The Phenomenology of Mind (1807), The Logic (1830), Philosophy of History (1837) & links to other works & secondary sources [U of Idaho].

Hegel by Hypertext

Andy Blunden also presents e-editions of Hegel's works (including Outline of  the Phenomenology, Philosophy of Nature, & Philosophy of Right) with an extensive collection analysis & critiques of his thought, both classic & current.

Hegel's Philosophy of Mind

William Wallace's 1894 translation of Hegel's Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences, part 3 (Internet Text Archive).



Dietrich Bonhoeffer

Complete text of Dallas M. Roark's 1972 introduction to the life & works of the charismatic Lutheran activist martyred by the Nazis (posted by Religion-Online).

Dietrich Bonhoeffer: The Cost of Discipleship

F. G. Oosterhoff's summary & analysis of Bonhoeffer's critique of Christian fideism (Christian Study Library).

Dietrich Bonhoeffer Reading Room

Gateway to digital resources for research on the German theologian and martyr (Tyndale Seminary, Ont.).

Karl Barth

Survey of the life and thought of the most influential Protestant theologian of the early 20th c. (in Wesley Wildman's Boston Collaborative Encyclopedia of Modern Western Theology).

Karl Barth: How My Mind has Changed in this Decade

1939 article in Christian Century explains Barth's opposition to Hitler's National Socialism (posted by Religion-Online).

Reinhold Neibuhr: Beyond Tragedy

Full text of Niebuhr's classic analysis of the dialectic of history & indictment of false prophets.

Thy Kingdom Come: A Blumhardt Reader

Vernard Eller's introduction to the life & works of left-wing 19th c. German pietists, father & son, whose critique of religion & theology of radical hope anticipated & influenced the dialectical theology of Barth, Brunner & other Neo-Orthodox thinkers & spawned the Bruderhof movement.


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This page was revised 03 February 2023 


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