Note: Some texts are buried deep in e-archives. If title link does not work, click source.

[ General Sources ] [ Language Tools ] [ Anatolia ] [ Egypt ] [ Mesopotamia ] [ Persia ] [ Syria & Palestine ]


Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ

Christopher Siren answers questions about the relation of later Mesopotamian religion to that of Sumer, including the generations of gods & heroes such as Gilgamesh.

Babylonia & Ancient Near Eastern Texts

Christian restoration movement website posts an extensive selection of primary documents illustrating Mesopotamian life-style, religion, & mythology in English translation as historical background for biblical texts.

Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature

Oxford U's comprehensive e-archive of Sumerian literature posts transliterations, translations & bibliographies for myths & epics (including Inana's Descent, Enki's Journey, Enlil & Ninlil, the Flood, Gilgamesh) & prayers to deities.

Epic of Gilgamesh

Timothy R. Carnahan's electronic edition of M. G. Kovacs' translation of the 11 Akkadian tablets of this most ancient of epics.

Exploring Ancient Cultures: Near East

On-line anthology provides, texts, maps, chronology, essay & exam on Mesopotamia & adjacent cultures from 3450 BCE-70 CE. Readings include Hammurabi's code of laws.

Gateways to Babylon

Elegant well-informed neo-pagan presentation of Mesopotamian culture & religion offers essay on Sumerian Religion & an extensive collection of classic myths, hymns & incantations, including many from hard-to-find texts.

Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Mesopotamia

Misleadingly named section of Paul Halsall's vast collection of links to academic quality e- resources covers Sumer, Akkadia, Assyria, Babylonia, but also the non-Mesopotamian civilizations of the Hittites, Syria, Phoenicia & Carthage.

Journal of Cuneiform Studies  

Lists contents of previous & upcoming issues (vol 43+).

Mesopotamian Reader

This chapter of Richard Hooker's cyber-anthology of World Civilizations offers selections from the code of Hammurabi, a summary of the epic of Gilgamesh & a guide to other resources on the WWW.

The Nippur Expedition

Reports on the excavations of the primary temple city of early Mesopotamia, including McGuire Gibson's 1993 article "Nippur: the Sacred City of Enlil, Supreme God of Sumer & Akkad" (hyper-text with maps & photographs).

Sumerian Mythology FAQ

Christopher Siren answers basic questions about the worldview of Sumerian religion including cosmology, gods, underworld & biblical parallels.



Avesta - Zoroastrian Archives

Joe Peterson provides an on-line version of Zoroastrian scriptures in both original language & translation: the complete Avesta (including the Yasna with the Gathas of Zarathustra) & several Pahlavi texts (including the Bundahishn creation account & the Denkard chapter on the life of Zarathustra). FAQ gives basic introduction to Zoroastrianism.

Exploring Ancient Cultures: Near East

On-line anthology provides, texts, maps, chronology, essay & exam including Persia's impact on near eastern culture from 600-300 BCE. Readings include selections from Pahlavi Ervad Zadspram.

Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Persia

Paul Halsall's well-organized collection of links to academic quality e-resources on ancient Persia (Fordham U).

Manichaean Writings

Gnostic Society's Virtual Library posts prayerbooks (including psalms to Jesus & Iranian hymns) as well as Augustine's anti-Manichean writings.


Syria & Palestine

Al-Mashriq: the Levant

Børre Ludvigsen's exquisite encyclopedia of cultural riches from the countries of the eastern Mediterranean features an interactive map to sites in Lebanon with historical details, religious sources, archaeological guides and stunning images of Baalbak, Beirut, Tyre, Sidon, & the giant cedars [hosted by Ostfold College, Norway].

A Bequest Unearthed: Phoenicia

Salim George Khalaf's award-winning comprehensive study of the pioneers of Mediterranean culture includes discussions of Phoenician religion from the Canaanites to Christianity, including its influence on Solomon's temple & the Hebrew Torah.

Biblical Beginnings in Canaan

Richard Shand provides an anthology of scholarship on Canaanite archaeology & religion, including early Israelite Yahwism.

The Cain Myth

Donovan Marais compares the biblical story with other ancient near-eastern parallels to find a solution to the problem of the protection, rather than the execution, of the first murderer (U of South Africa). 

Canaanite/Ugaritic FAQ

Christopher Siren provides basic info about the Canaanites, their religion & cosmology.

Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Israel

Paul Halsall's well-organized collection of links to academic quality e- resources on ancient Israel. For some inscrutable reason links to Canaanite, Syrian & Phoenician resources are found on his Mesopotamia web page  (Fordham U).

Palestine in the Time of Jesus Home Page

Visual aids & quotations from primary sources arranged to complement the new book by K. C. Hanson & D. Oakman (Fortress 1996).

Qadash Kinahnu - A Canaanite-Phoenician Temple

A well-researched neo-pagan guide to the world of the "purple people" who colonized the Mediterranean & influenced the development of Hebrew tradition introduces their cultural history, deities, calendar, magic rituals & provides a translation of the complete Ugaritic text of the myth of Ba'al.

Ras Shamra Project

U of Edinburgh's archive of the library of ancient Ugarit (Lebanon) posts images, transliterations & translations of key texts, including a tablet from the Ba'al cycle (RS 02.008). Site in transition.

Shomran (Samaria)

Alexander Kaplunovsky's elegant gateway to e-resources related to Israel's heartland is an indispensable tool for quick access to information on the region's history, geography, cities & villages, & education.


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This page was revised 05 March 2008



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