Parallel Texts in Matthew, Mark & Luke

3. Why Parables?
Matt 13:10-17 // Mark 4:10-12 // Luke 8:9-10

  context     Greek synopsis     English synopsis     analysis     source hypotheses     appendix 

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Greek Text

The reconstruction of the gospel texts below is based on the critical edition of E. Nestle's Novum Testamentum Graece presented with a fuller critical apparatus in Kurt Aland's Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum  ed. ii (Stuttgart: Württembergiche Bibelanstalt, 1964) pp. 175-177.  The matched column format & color coding employed here is the original work of the author of this electronic edition. The accented Greek script used to compose this synopsis is the unicode font, Palatino Linotype.

Matthew 13 Mark 4 Luke 8
10 Καὶ προσελϑόντες 10 Καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο    
      κατὰ μόνας    
      ἠρώτων 9 Ἐπηρώτων
    αὐτὸν   δὲ αὐτὸν
      *οἱ περὶ αὐτον    
   οἱ μαϑηταὶ   σὺν τοῖς δώδεκα*   οἱ μαϑηταὶ αὐτοῦ
  εἶπαν αῦτῷ·        
  διὰ τὶ       τίς αὕτη εἴη
  ἐν παραβολαῖς   τὰς παραβολάς   παραβολ
  λαλεῖς αὐτοῖς;        
11 ὁ δὲ ἀποκροϑεὶς 11 καὶ   ὁ δὲ
  εἶπεν·   ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς· 10


  ὅτι ὑμῖν     Ὑμῖν   Ὑμῖν
  ** τὸ μυστήριον  
  δέδοται   δέδοται    δέδοται
  γνῶναι       γνῶναι
  τὰ μυστήρια     τὰ μυστήρια
  τῆς βασιλείας   τῆς βασιλείας    τῆς βασιλείας
  τῶν οὐρανῶν,   τοῦ ϑεοῦ·**   τοῦ ϑεοῦ·
  ἐκείνοις δὲ   ἐκείνοις δὲ   τοῖς δὲ
    τοῖς ἔξω   λοιποῖς
  οὐ δέδοται.        
12 ὅστις γὰρ ἔχει,        
  δoϑήσεται αὐτῷ        
  ὅστις δὲ        
  οὐκ ἔχει,        
  καὶ ὃ ἔχει        
  ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ.        
13  διὰ τοῦτο        
  ἐν παραβολαῖς   ἐν παραβολαῖς   ἐν παραβολαῖς,
  αὐτοῖς   τὰ πάντα    
  λαλῶ,   γίνεται,  
***  ὅτι


ἵνα   ἵνα
  βλέποντες   βλέποντες   βλέποντες
  οὐ βλέπουσιν   καὶ μὴ ἴδωσιν   μή βλέπωσιν
  καὶ ἀκούοντες   καὶ ἀκούοντες   καὶ ἀκούοντες
  οὐκ ἀκούουσιν   ἀκούωσιν     
  οὐδὲ συνίουσιν***   καὶ μὴ συνιῶσιν   μὴ συνιῶσιν


  ἡ προϕητεία        
  ἡ λέγουσα·        
  καὶ οὐ        
  μὴ συνῆτε,      
  καὶ βλέποντες        
  καὶ οὐ        

μὴ ἴδῆτε,

15 ἐπαχύνϑη γὰρ        
  ἡ καρδία        
  τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου,        
  καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν        
  βαρέως ἤκουσαν,        
  τοὺς ὀϕϑαλμοὺς      
  μήποτε ἴδῶσιν   μήποτε    
  τοῖς ὀϕϑαλμοῖς        
  καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν        
  καὶ τῇ καρδὶᾳ        
  ἐπιστρεψῶσιν,   ἐπιστρεψῶσιν,    
  καὶ ἰάσομαι   καὶ ἀϕεϑῇ    
  αὐτους.   αὐτοῖς.    
16 ὑμῶν δὲ μακάριοι      

[see Luke 10:23 below]

  οἱ ὀϕϑαλμοὶ        
  ὅτι βλέπουσιν,        
  καὶ τὰ ὦτα ὑμῶν        
  ὅτι ἀκούουσιν.        
17 ἀμὴν γὰρ         
  λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι        
  πολλοὶ προϕῆται        
  καὶ δίκαιοι        
  ἐπεϑύμησαν ἰδεῖν         
  ἅ βλέπετε        
  καὶ οὐκ εἶδαν,        
  καὶ ἀκοῦσαι        
  ἃ ἀκούετε        
  καὶ οὐκ ἤκουσαν.        

* Note: A handful of mss. (including codex Bezae) & Origen have "his disciples" (μαϑηταὶ αὐτοῦ) in Mark 4:10 (like Luke) rather than "those who were about him with the 12" (οἱ  περὶ  αὐτον  σὺν  τοῖς  δώδεκα).  Textual critics generally consider the longer version original because

  • it is in most mss. including the oldest;
  • it is more awkward & therefore less likely to be a later correction.

** Note: The wording of Mark 4:11 in the Byzantine recension & codex Bezae  exactly parallels Luke 8:10 (including γνῶναι) except for the singular τὸν μυστήριον.  Text critics regard the wording  found in 4th c. mss. (codex Sinaiticus & codex Vaticanus) as probably original.

*** Note: The dependent clause in Matt 13:13 is worded like Mark 4:12 in codex Bezae. Textual critics generally regard this as a harmonization by one 5th c. scribe.

Color Key
 Blue  Three texts use same vocabulary.
 Teal  Two texts use same vocabulary.
 Black  Words unique to a particular text.
   No parallel passage in this gospel.

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last revised 01 March 2023

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