Parallel Texts in Matthew, Mark & Luke

2. The Sower
Matt 13:1-9 // Mark 4:1-9 // Luke 8:4-8

  context     Greek synopsis     English synopsis     analysis     source hypotheses     variants 

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Greek Text

The reconstruction of the gospel texts below is based on the critical edition of E. Nestle's Novum Testamentum Graece presented with a fuller critical apparatus in Kurt Aland's Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum  ed. ii (Stuttgart: Württembergiche Bibelanstalt, 1964) pp. 174-175.  The matched column format & color coding employed here is the original work of the author of this electronic edition. The accented Greek script used to compose this synopsis is the unicode font, Palatino Linotype.

Matthew 13 Mark 4 Luke 8
  Ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ        
  ἐξελϑὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς        
  τῆς οἰκίας        
  ἐκάϑητο   1  Καὶ πάλιν    
      ἤρξατο διδάσκειν    
. παρὰ τὴν ϑάλασσαν·   παρὰ τὴν ϑάλασσαν·    
2 καὶ συνήχϑησαν   καὶ συνάγεται  4  Συνιόντος δὲ
  πρὸς αὐτον   πρὸς αὐτον    
  ὄχλοι πολλοί,   ὄχλος πλεῖστος,   ὄχλου πολλο
  ὥστε αὐτὸν   ὥστε αὐτὸν    
  εἰς πλοῖον ἐμβάντα   εἰς πλοῖον ἐμβάντα    
  καϑῆσϑαι,   καϑῆσϑαι,    
      ἐν τῇ ϑαλάσσῃ,    
  καὶ   καὶ   καὶ
  πᾶς ὁ ὄχλος   πᾶς ὁ ὄχλος   τῶν κατὰ πόλιν
  ἐπὶ τὸν αἰγιαλὸν   ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς    
  εἱστήκει.   ἦσαν.   ἐπὶ πορευομένων
          πρὸς αὐτὸν
3 καὶ ἐλάλησεν 2 καὶ ἐδίδασκεν    
  αὐτοῖς   αὐτοὺς  
  ἐν παραβολαῖς*   ἐν παραβολαῖς*  
  λέγων·   καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς   εἶπεν
      διὰ παραβολῆς·*
    ἐν τῇ διδαχῇ     
  3 Ἀκούετε.    
  ἰδοὺ   ἰδοὺ  
  ἐξῆλϑεν ὁ σπείρων   ἐξῆλϑεν ὁ σπείρων 5 ἐξῆλϑεν ὁ σπείρων
  τοῦ σπείρειν.   σπεῖραι.   τοῦ σπεῖραι
      τὸν σπόρον
4 καὶ 4 καὶ ἐγένετο   καὶ
  ἐν τῷ σπείρειν   ἐν τῷ σπείρειν   ἐν τῷ σπείρειν
  αὐτὸν     αὐτὸν
  μὲν ἔπεσεν   μὲν ἔπεσεν   μὲν ἔπεσεν
  παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν,   παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν,   παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν,
          καὶ κατεπατήϑη
  καὶ ἐλϑόντα   καὶ ἦλϑεν   καὶ
  τὰ πετεινὰ   τὰ πετεινὰ   τὰ πετεινὰ
      τοῦ οὐρανοῦ
  κατέϕαγεν αὐτά.   καὶ κατέϕαγεν αὐτό.   κατέϕαγεν αὐτό.
5 ἄλλα δὲ 5 καὶ ἄλλο 6 καὶ ἕτερον
  ἔπεσεν   ἔπεσεν   κατέπεσεν
  ἐπὶ τὰ πετρῶδη   ἐπὶ τὸ πετρῶδες   ἐπὶ τήν πέτραν
  ὅπου οὐκ εἶχειν   ὅπου οὐκ εἶχειν    
  γῆν πολλήν,   γῆν πολλήν,    
  καὶ εὐϑέως   καὶ εὐϑὺς   καὶ
  ἐξανέτειλεν   ἐξανέτειλεν   ϕυὲν
  διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν   διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν    
  βάϑος γῆς·   βάϑος γῆς·    
6 ἡλίου δὲ 6 καὶ ὅτε    
  ἀνέτειλαντος   ἀνέτειλεν ὁ ἥλιος  
  ἐκαυματίσϑη,   ἐκαυματίσϑη,    
  καὶ διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν*   καὶ διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν*    
  ῥιζαν   ῥιζαν  
  ἐξηράνϑη.   ἐξηράνϑη.   ἐξηράνϑη
          διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν*
7 ἄλλα δὲ ἔπεσεν 7 καὶ ἄλλο ἔπεσεν 7 καὶ ἕτερον ἔπεσεν
  ἐπὶ   εἰς    ἐν μέσῳ
  τὰς ἀκανϑας,   τὰς ἀκανϑας,   τῶν ἀκάνϑῶν,
  καὶ ἀνέβησαν   καὶ ἀνέβησαν   καὶ συμϕυεῖσαι
  αἱ ἄκανϑαι   αἱ ἄκανϑαι   αἱ ἄκανϑαι

καὶ ἀπέπνιξαν

  καὶ συνέπνιξαν   ἀπέπνιξαν
  αὐτ.   αὐτό,   αὐτ.
.     καὶ καρπὸν    
    οὐκ ἔδωκεν.  
8 ἄλλα δὲ ἔπεσεν 8 καὶ ἄλλα ἔπεσεν 8 καὶ ἕτερον ἔπεσεν
  ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν    εἰς τὴν γῆν   εἰς τὴν γῆν
  τὴν καλὴν   τὴν καλὴν   τὴν ἀγαϑὴν
  καὶ ἐδίδου καρπὸν*   καὶ ἐδίδου καρπὸν*   καὶ
      ἀναβαίνοντὰ   ϕυὲν
      καὶ αὐξανόμενα   ἐποίησεν καρπὸν*
      καὶ ἔϕερεν  
  ὅ μὲν ἑκατόν* ** εἰς τριάκοντα*    
  ὅ δὲ ἑξήκοντα ** καὶ ἐν ἑξήκοντα    
  ὅ δὲ τριάκοντα.* ** καὶ ἐν ἑκατόν.*   ἑκατοντα πλασίονα.
    9 καὶ ἔλεγεν·   ταῦτα λεγῶν
9 ἔχων ὧτα   Ὃς ἔχει ὧτα   ἔχων ὧτα
*** [ἀκούειν,]   ἀκούειν,   ἀκούειν,
  ἀκουέτω.   ἀκουέτω.   ἀκουέτω.


**Note: The manuscript tradition of Mark 4:8 is complicated at this point.  Codex Sinaiticus has εἰς before each of the three quantities, while later manuscripts in the Byzantine recension use ἐν before each. Codex Bezae and others in the western recension use ἕν three times. The mixed construction (εἰς...ἐν...ἐν) from codex Vaticanus, is followed here, because it is early and the most likely source of all the scribal variants.

***Note: The infinitive ἀκούειν is not in Matt 13:9 in the two earliest codices (before 400 CE): Sinaiticus & Vaticanus. But it is found in most mss. after 400 CE. Which explanation of these facts is more plausible?

  • It was omitted by accident. Scribes copying a ms. with redundant words sometimes dropped one. Note that there are two forms of the verb "hear" in Matt 13:9. Or...

  • It was added by later scribes to bring Matthew in line with the other synoptic versions of this saying.

If this verb was missing from later mss., a scribal lapse would be clear. But since it is lacking in both of the oldest mss., accidental omission is less likely. The Diatesseron, a 2nd c. harmony of the four gospels included the infinitive in this saying. But there is no evidence for it in Greek mss. of Matthew before the 5th c. CE.

Color Code
 Blue  Three gospels use same vocabulary.
 Teal  Two gospels use same vocabulary.
 Black   Words unique to a particular gospel.
*  Same wording, different order.

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last revised 05 February 2023


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