Parallel Texts in Matthew, Mark & Luke

3. Why Parables?
Matt 13:10-17 // Mark 4:10-12 // Luke 8:9-10

  context     Greek synopsis     English synopsis     analysis     source hypotheses     appendix 

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Matthew 13 Mark 4 Luke 8
10  <And> 10  And when he was alone, [And] when
      *those who were    
      about him    
  the disciples came   with the twelve*   his disciples
  and said to him,   asked him   asked him
  "Why do you speak   concerning   what
  to them        
  in parables?"   the parables.   this parable meant,
11  <But answering,> 11 And    
  he said to them,   <he would say> to them, 10  he said,
  "To you   "To you   "To you
  has been given   has been given   has been given
  to know the secrets   ** the secret   to know the secrets
  of the kingdom   of the kingdom   of the kingdom
  of Heaven,   of God,   of God;
  but to them   but for those outside   but for others
  it has not been given.        
12 For <whoever> has,        
  <to him it will be given>,        
  and he will have abundance;        
  but <whoever has not>,        
  even what he has        
  will be taken away        
  <from him>.        
13 This is why   everything is   they are
  I speak to them in parables,   in parables;   in parables,
  ***because 12 so that   so that
  seeing   "<seeing>   seeing
  they do   they may   they may
  not see,   see but not perceive,   not see,
  and hearing   <and hearing>   and hearing
  they do not hear,   they may hear   they may
  nor do they understand.***   but not understand;   not understand."
14 With them indeed is fulfilled        
  the prophecy of Isaiah        
  which says:        
  `You shall indeed hear        
  but never understand,        
  and you shall indeed see        
  but never perceive.        
15 For this people's heart        
  has grown dull,        
  and their ears are heavy        
  of hearing,        
  and their eyes        
  they have closed,        
  lest they should perceive   lest they should    
  with their eyes,        
  and hear with their ears,        
  and understand        
  with their heart,        
  and turn for me   turn again,    
  to heal them.'   and be forgiven."    
16 But blessed are your eyes,      

[see Luke 10:23 below]

  for they see,        
  and your ears,        
  for they hear.        
17 Truly, I say to you,        
  many prophets        
  and righteous men        
  longed to see what you see,        
  and did not see it,        
  and to hear what you hear,        
  and did not hear it."        

* Note: A handful of mss. (including codex Bezae) & Origen have "his disciples" in Mark 4:10 (like Luke) rather than "those who were about him with the 12." Textual critics generally regard the longer version original because

  • it is in most mss. including the oldest;
  • it is more awkward & therefore less likely to be a later correction.

** Note: The wording of Mark 4:11 in the Byzantine recension & codex Bezae  exactly parallels Luke 8:10 (with "to know" after "given" ) except for the singular "mystery".   Text critics regard the wording  found in 4th c. mss. (codex Sinaiticus & codex Vaticanus) as probably original.

*** Note:  The dependent clause in Matt 13:13 is worded like Mark 4:12 in codex Bezae. Textual critics generally regard this as a harmonization by one 5th c. scribe.

Color Key
 Blue  Three texts use same vocabulary.
 Teal  Two texts use same vocabulary.
 Black  Words unique to a particular text.
 <and>  RSV wording revised to reflect Greek.
   No parallel passage in this gospel.

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last revised 01 March 2023

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