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"Prophet" is Beheaded [45 CE]
Now when (Cuspius)
Fadus was administrator
(45 CE), a certain sorcerer named Theudas
urged a great part of the people to take their belongings with
them and follow him to the Jordan River. For
he told them he was a prophet and that by his command he would
divide the river and give them easy passage
And many were led
astray by his words. Fadus, however, did not let them reap any
benefit from their folly. He sent after them a cavalry troop
which overtook them by surprise, slaying many and taking many
alive. And they took Theudas himself alive and cut off
his head and carried it to Jerusalem...
Crucifixions [46-48 CE]
||Now at this time
(46-48 CE) a great famine also happened to
spread through Judea.
And during it, Queen Helena spent much of her wealth for grain
from Egypt and distributed it to the poor.
||And in addition,
James and Simon the sons of Judah the Galilean---who,
as I pointed out in a previous book, had led the people to
revolt against the Romans when Quirinius came to assess the
property of the Jews---were now brought up and crucified,
by order of (the Roman procurator,
promise Signs: the Egyptian
||Now the affairs of
the Jews grew continually worse and worse. For the country was
full of bandits and imposters
who deluded the crowds.
||Yet every day, Felix
of Judea, 52-60 CE]
captured many of these (imposters) as well as the bandits and
put them to death...
||The bandits' deeds filled the
city with such pollution [i.e., murders]. Moreover, sorcerers
and charlatans called on the mob to follow them into
||For they said that they would
show them unmistakable wonders and signs
happening in accordance with the plan of God. Many, in fact,
were persuaded by them and paid the penalty for their folly.
For they were brought before Felix and he punished them.
||At this time a man from
Egypt came to Jerusalem. He said he was a prophet and
urged the masses of common people to go with them out to the
mountain called the Mount of Olives which
lies five furlongs from the city.
||For he claimed that he wanted to
show that at his command from there Jerusalem's
walls would fall down. He promised to provide them
entry to the city through them.
heard of this, he ordered his soldiers to take up their arms.
Setting out from Jerusalem with a large force of cavalry and
infantry, he overtook the Egyptian and his
followers, slaying 400 of them and taking 200 prisoners.
||But the Egyptian himself escaped
from the battle and disappeared. And now the bandits
once more stirred up the populace for war with Rome by telling
them not to heed them. They even burned and pillaged the
villages of the disobedient.
||Now, in the
incited crimes with untimely cures, the worst being copied by
to whom the (other) part of the province belonged. It was
divided thus: the natives of Galilee
were subject to the latter and the Samaritans [and Judeans ?]
to Felix.* They were at odds from of old; and
now in contempt of their rulers their hatred was less
restrained. Therefore, they ravaged each other: sending out
troops of bandits, they set up ambushes and sometimes came
together in battle. Their spoils and prizes they brought back
to the procurators. At first both were pleased. (Yet) soon,
with the destruction spreading, they [the procurators] came
between them [the bandits] with armed troops. But the troops
were killed and the provinces would have burst out in war if
the governor of Syria, had not intervened. There was no longer
doubt that capital punishment was in store for those Jews who
broke out to slaughter (Roman) soldiers.
||--- Tacitus, Annals
||[NOTE: Tacitus' claim that there
were separate procurators for Galilee & Samaria at this
time is not supported by Josephus, who was himself in
Jerusalem. Nor does Josephus support Tacitus' charge that
Samaritan bandits collaborated with Roman procurators.
This discrepancy is best traced to Tacitus' confusion over the
fact that Cumanus was replaced by Felix after Quadratus'
campaign against Galilean bandits.]
Stoning of James,
the Brother of Jesus [62 CE]
(II) the younger---who was appointed to the high-priesthood
(in 62 CE)...
---was rash in temper and exceptionally daring.
He followed the sect of the Sadducees, who
are in fact more harsh than all the (other) Jews in judicial
||This Hanan thought
that he had an hour of grace, because Festus
[the Roman procurator] had died and (his successor) Albinus
was just beginning his journey to Jerusalem.
So he convened the Sanhedrin of judges and
brought before them a man named James, the brother of
Jesus, the reputed Messiah, and some others. He
accused them of having transgressed the Torah
and delivered them up to be stoned.
||Now those who seem
to be the most fair of those in the city---those who were strict
in keeping the Torah [= the Pharisees]---were deeply
shocked by this and sent (a messenger) to king (Agrippa
II), to call on (Hanan
II) not to do such things. For he was not right in the first
thing he had done.
Lament for Jerusalem
||Four years before
the war (62 CE), when the city was at peace and enjoying the
greatest prosperity, an uneducated peasant,
one Jesus ben Hananiah came to the feast when
all the people make booths for God [i.e., Sukkoth].
||Suddenly he began to
cry out through the temple:
"A voice from the East, a voice from the West,
a voice from the four winds:
a voice against Jerusalem
and the temple,
a voice against the bridegroom and the bride
a voice against all the people!"
Crying this day and night he went through all the streets.
||But some of the prominent
citizens, upset by this evil announcement, arrested
the man and tortured him with many blows. But without
a sound concerning himself or for the persons of his
persecutors, he kept on crying the "voices" as
||So thinking that the man was
moved by some greater force, as indeed he was, the rulers
brought him up before the Roman governor.
||Although he was there
to the bone by scourges, he neither begged nor
wailed. But bending his "voices" to greater laments,
he responded to each blow: "Woe to Jerusalem!"
was then governor, asked him who he was and where he was from
and why he uttered these things, he did not respond at all to
these questions. But he would not stop repeating his lament
for the city, until Albinus judged him a madman
and released him.