Romanize their Territory
had already disposed of Archelaus'
properties; and the assessment of (Jews')
possessions that was conducted in (6 CE)
the thirty-seventh year after Caesar
(Augustus) defeated (Marc)
Antony at Actium was
over. Since Joazar the high priest had been overpowered by the
populace, he was stripped of the rank of (this) office; and Hanan
( I ) ben Seth was installed as high priest..
(Antipas) and Philip
were each taking control of the tetrarchy he had received. And
as the showplace of all Galilee,
Herod called it Autokratoris ["the Emperor's city"].
He made Betharamphtha [ = Beth Haram] a city and fortified it,
naming it Julias, after the emperor's wife.*
||And Philip built up
Paneas near the sources of the Jordan
(river), naming it Caesarea
elevating the village of Bethsaida
by Lake Gennesareth [ = the Sea
of Galilee] to the rank
of city [polis] by increasing settlers and
strengthening it fortifications, he renamed it Julia
for the daughter of Caesar (Augustus).**
||Augustus' wife's name was
Drusilla, but after the
emperor's death (14 CE) she assumed the name of Julia Augusta.
The fact that Antipas named Beth Haram "Julias"
indicates that it was dedicated early in the reign of her son,
whom she dominated.
||It is more likely
that Bethsaida was named for Augustus' wife, since he banished
his daughter in 2 CE for disgracing her family & her
husband, Tiberius, in whose reign the city was dedicated.
"Sea" of Galilee & the Jordan basin
||Now Lake Gennesar [=
of Galilee] is named
from the adjoining region. It is forty furlongs [= 4.5 miles]
wide and (add) to these another hundred [= 11.5 miles] in
length. Yet it is sweet and quite drinkable...
||...There is a kind
of fish in it different in both taste and appearance from
those in other places.
||The Jordan cuts through the
middle of (the lake). Now the source of the Jordan seems (to
be) at the grotto of Pan, but it is secretly carried there
underground from (the pool) called "the Bowl" [Phiales].
||This is one hundred twenty
furlongs [= 14 miles] from Caesarea
(Philippi) on the
ascent to Trachonitis, on the right and not far from the
||Beginning from the grotto (of
Pan) the visible stream of the Jordan cuts through the marshes
and pools of Lake Semechonitis [= Huleh], crossing another one
hundred twenty furlongs [= 14 miles]. After the city of (Bethsaida)
Julias it pours through the middle of (Lake) Gennesar. Then,
after surveying a sizeable wilderness, it comes out into the
Asphalt Lake [ = Dead Sea].
||An area of remarkable nature and
beauty, also named Gennesar, lies beside the (former lake).
For there is not any plant that is disowned by its fertility.
And the farmers produce everything. The climate is so mild
that it suits even opposites...
||...For in addition to the mild
climate, it is also watered by a fertilizing spring. The
locals call it Capernaum...
||The area (of Gennesar) that lies
beside the shore of the lake of the same name is thirty
furlongs long and twenty wide [about 3 x 2 miles]. Such is the
nature of these (areas).
Jewish War 3.506-510,
capital of Galilee
||Since the tetrarch Herod
(Antipas) was advancing
as a great friend of Tiberius,
he had a city, named Tiberias
after him, constructed, locating it in one of the best places
Gennesareth. There is a
hot spring not far from it in a village named Ammanthus [ =
||It was colonized by
riff-raff, not a few of whom were Galilean. And these were
drawn out of the land subject to him [Antipas] and to a life
in the colony. Some of these were even in (his) government. He
accepted even men without means drawn from everywhere to be
joined with them. It is not clear whether they were free.
||He even liberated
many in many places, granting them land and supplying houses
from his own means, on the condition that they would not leave
the city, knowing that (this) settlement was against the Torah
and the heritage of the Jews, since the foundation of Tiberias
was over tombs -- of which there were many -- that were
obliterated. Our Law declares these settlers to be defiled for seven days.
John the Baptizer
||Now at this time Herod
died: in the twentieth year of Tiberius'
rule (34 CE) and after 37 years as governor of Trachon and Golan...
king of Petra and Herod (Antipas) quarreled for the following
reason: As tetrarch, Herod had taken Aretas' daughter
as his wife and was already with her for a long time...
||But he fell in love
the wife of (his half-bother) Rus.*
She was daughter of (Antipas' and Rus' half-)brother Aristobulus
(IV) and sister of (Herod)
Agrippa (I) the Great.
(Herod Antipas) dared to propose marriage and she accepted,
making a contract to move to his household when he returned
from Rome. But it was in their contracts that the daughter of
Aretas would be thrown out...
||(Aretas) made this a pretext for
conflict concerning the boundaries in the land of Gabala. And
when each gathered his army, they went to war,
sending out commanders in their stead.
||Now when some refugees from the
territory of Philip who had joined up with Herod became
traitors to him, the whole army of Herod was wiped out
||But to some Jews it seemed that
Herod's army had been destroyed by God as a very just
vengeance for John who was nicknamed
"the Baptizer". For Herod executed him. He
was a good man. And to the Jews he
recommended training in virtue with both justice towards
others and piety towards God. Those who so
desired were to unite in baptism.
For thus indeed even
baptism appeared acceptable to him, not for petitioning for
some sin they had done but for purifying the body even as the
soul had been previously cleansed with justice.
||And when others joined him,
having been very much stirred by his words, Herod (Antipas)
feared that persuasiveness such as his might bring some men to
dissidence. For they seemed to do anything John advised.
(Herod) judged that before some revolt come
of this, it would be better to arrest him first than to let
(his fear) become reality, by waiting for this turn of affairs
||So, because of Herod (Antipas)'
suspicion, (John) was sent chained to Machaerus,
the fortress (in Perea)
mentioned before. And he was slain in that
place. But it was believed by the Jews that God willed to
punish Herod by the destruction that befell the army (in 36 CE).
the Great's fourth son,
whose given name was also Herod.
||Now at this (time)
[36 CE] Agrippa
( I ), the
son of Aristobulus
who had been executed
by his father Herod,
came before (the emperor) Tiberius
as an accuser of Herod
(Antipas) the tetrarch
When (the emperor) did not accept the accusation, (Agrippa)
attended other note-worthies, especially Germanicus' son,
(Caligula) who was
still a private citizen.
||And, in fact, when
he was entertaining him he flattered him in various ways and
finally, raising (his) hands in demonstration, he prayed the
sooner to see Tiberius dying (and) him [Caligula] master of
the whole (world).
||This was reported by
one of his [Agrippa's] domestics to Tiberius and the latter
was so irritated that he locked Agrippa up and for six months
held him with abuse in bondage until he [Tiberius] came to his
end (in March 37 CE), having presided for twenty-two years six
months and three days.
||When Gaius (Caligula) was
proclaimed Caesar, he freed Agrippa from his bonds and
installed him as king of the tetrarchy of Philip, for the
latter was dead. When Agrippa assumed his office (in 39 CE),
the ambition of Herod (Antipas) the tetrarch was stirred up in
||But it was his wife, [Agrippa's
who led him on in hope of kingship, by chiding him for
laziness and claiming that his unwillingness to sail to Caesar
deprived him of a greater office: "For when he has made a
king out of Agrippa, a private citizen, (she argued), how
would be hesitate (to do) that out of a tetrarch?"
||Seduced by these (arguments),
Herod (Antipas) went to Gaius (Caligula) who punished him for
his presumption by exiling him to Spain. For
Agrippa followed him as an accuser. Gaius presented the
tetrarchy of the former [Antipas] to the latter [Agrippa].
Herod (Antipas), joined in exile by his wife, came to his end