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34. Herod's Heirs Romanize their Territory
26 Quirinius had already disposed of Archelaus' properties; and the assessment of (Jews') possessions that was conducted in (6 CE) the thirty-seventh year after Caesar (Augustus) defeated (Marc) Antony at Actium was over. Since Joazar the high priest had been overpowered by the populace, he was stripped of the rank of (this) office; and Hanan ( I ) ben Seth was installed as high priest..
27 Herod (Antipas) and Philip were each taking control of the tetrarchy he had received. And fortifying Sepphoris as the showplace of all Galilee, Herod called it Autokratoris ["the Emperor's city"]. He made Betharamphtha [ = Beth Haram] a city and fortified it, naming it Julias, after the emperor's wife.*
28 And Philip built up Paneas near the sources of the Jordan (river), naming it Caesarea (Philippi). And elevating the village of Bethsaida by Lake Gennesareth [ = the Sea of Galilee] to the rank of city [polis] by increasing settlers and strengthening it fortifications, he renamed it Julia for the daughter of Caesar (Augustus).**
  --- Josephus, Antiquities 18.26-28
* Augustus' wife's name was actually Livia Drusilla, but after the emperor's death (14 CE) she assumed the name of Julia Augusta. The fact that Antipas named Beth Haram "Julias" indicates that it was dedicated early in the reign of her son, Tiberius, whom she dominated.
** It is more likely that Bethsaida was named for Augustus' wife, since he banished his daughter in 2 CE for disgracing her family & her husband, Tiberius, in whose reign the city was dedicated.

35. The "Sea" of Galilee & the Jordan basin
506 Now Lake Gennesar [= the Sea of Galilee] is named from the adjoining region. It is forty furlongs [= 4.5 miles] wide and (add) to these another hundred [= 11.5 miles] in length. Yet it is sweet and quite drinkable...
508 ...There is a kind of fish in it different in both taste and appearance from those in other places.
509 The Jordan cuts through the middle of (the lake). Now the source of the Jordan seems (to be) at the grotto of Pan, but it is secretly carried there underground from (the pool) called "the Bowl" [Phiales].
510 This is one hundred twenty furlongs [= 14 miles] from Caesarea (Philippi) on the ascent to Trachonitis, on the right and not far from the road...
515 Beginning from the grotto (of Pan) the visible stream of the Jordan cuts through the marshes and pools of Lake Semechonitis [= Huleh], crossing another one hundred twenty furlongs [= 14 miles]. After the city of (Bethsaida) Julias it pours through the middle of (Lake) Gennesar. Then, after surveying a sizeable wilderness, it comes out into the Asphalt Lake [ = Dead Sea].
516 An area of remarkable nature and beauty, also named Gennesar, lies beside the (former lake). For there is not any plant that is disowned by its fertility. And the farmers produce everything. The climate is so mild that it suits even opposites...
519 ...For in addition to the mild climate, it is also watered by a fertilizing spring. The locals call it Capernaum...
521 The area (of Gennesar) that lies beside the shore of the lake of the same name is thirty furlongs long and twenty wide [about 3 x 2 miles]. Such is the nature of these (areas).
  --- Josephus, Jewish War 3.506-510, 515-521

36. Tiberias: new capital of Galilee
36 Since the tetrarch Herod (Antipas) was advancing as a great friend of Tiberius, he had a city, named Tiberias after him, constructed, locating it in one of the best places in Galilee on Lake Gennesareth. There is a hot spring not far from it in a village named Ammanthus [ = Hammath].
37 It was colonized by riff-raff, not a few of whom were Galilean. And these were drawn out of the land subject to him [Antipas] and to a life in the colony. Some of these were even in (his) government. He accepted even men without means drawn from everywhere to be joined with them. It is not clear whether they were free.
38 He even liberated many in many places, granting them land and supplying houses from his own means, on the condition that they would not leave the city, knowing that (this) settlement was against the Torah and the heritage of the Jews, since the foundation of Tiberias was over tombs -- of which there were many -- that were obliterated. Our Law declares these settlers to be defiled for seven days.
  --- Josephus, Antiquities 18.36-38

37. Antipas executes John the Baptizer
106 Now at this time Herod (Antipas)' (half-)brother Philip died: in the twentieth year of Tiberius' rule (34 CE) and after 37 years as governor of Trachon and Golan...
109 And then Aretas, king of Petra and Herod (Antipas) quarreled for the following reason: As tetrarch, Herod had taken Aretas' daughter as his wife and was already with her for a long time...
110 But he fell in love with Herodias, the wife of (his half-bother) Rus.* She was daughter of (Antipas' and Rus' half-)brother Aristobulus (IV) and sister of (Herod) Agrippa (I) the Great. (Herod Antipas) dared to propose marriage and she accepted, making a contract to move to his household when he returned from Rome. But it was in their contracts that the daughter of Aretas would be thrown out...
113 (Aretas) made this a pretext for conflict concerning the boundaries in the land of Gabala. And when each gathered his army, they went to war, sending out commanders in their stead.
114 Now when some refugees from the territory of Philip who had joined up with Herod became traitors to him, the whole army of Herod was wiped out in battle...
117 But to some Jews it seemed that Herod's army had been destroyed by God as a very just vengeance for John who was nicknamed "the Baptizer". For Herod executed him. He was a good man. And to the Jews he recommended training in virtue with both justice towards others and piety towards God. Those who so desired were to unite in baptism. For thus indeed even baptism appeared acceptable to him, not for petitioning for some sin they had done but for purifying the body even as the soul had been previously cleansed with justice.
118 And when others joined him, having been very much stirred by his words, Herod (Antipas) feared that persuasiveness such as his might bring some men to dissidence. For they seemed to do anything John advised. (Herod) judged that before some revolt come of this, it would be better to arrest him first than to let (his fear) become reality, by waiting for this turn of affairs to happen.
119 So, because of Herod (Antipas)' suspicion, (John) was sent chained to Machaerus, the fortress (in Perea) mentioned before. And he was slain in that place. But it was believed by the Jews that God willed to punish Herod by the destruction that befell the army (in 36 CE).
  --- Josephus, Antiquities 18.106-119
* Rus: Herod the Great's fourth son, whose given name was also Herod.

38. Agrippa replaces Antipas
178 Now at this (time) [36 CE] Agrippa ( I ), the son of Aristobulus who had been executed by his father Herod, came before (the emperor) Tiberius as an accuser of Herod (Antipas) the tetrarch (of Galilee). When (the emperor) did not accept the accusation, (Agrippa) attended other note-worthies, especially Germanicus' son, Gaius (Caligula) Gaius (Caligula) who was still a private citizen.
179 And, in fact, when he was entertaining him he flattered him in various ways and finally, raising (his) hands in demonstration, he prayed the sooner to see Tiberius dying (and) him [Caligula] master of the whole (world).
180 This was reported by one of his [Agrippa's] domestics to Tiberius and the latter was so irritated that he locked Agrippa up and for six months held him with abuse in bondage until he [Tiberius] came to his end (in March 37 CE), having presided for twenty-two years six months and three days.
181 When Gaius (Caligula) was proclaimed Caesar, he freed Agrippa from his bonds and installed him as king of the tetrarchy of Philip, for the latter was dead. When Agrippa assumed his office (in 39 CE), the ambition of Herod (Antipas) the tetrarch was stirred up in jealousy.
182 But it was his wife, [Agrippa's sister] Herodias, who led him on in hope of kingship, by chiding him for laziness and claiming that his unwillingness to sail to Caesar deprived him of a greater office: "For when he has made a king out of Agrippa, a private citizen, (she argued), how would be hesitate (to do) that out of a tetrarch?"
183 Seduced by these (arguments), Herod (Antipas) went to Gaius (Caligula) who punished him for his presumption by exiling him to Spain. For Agrippa followed him as an accuser. Gaius presented the tetrarchy of the former [Antipas] to the latter [Agrippa]. Herod (Antipas), joined in exile by his wife, came to his end in Spain .
  --- Josephus, Jewish War 2.178-183

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