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29. Herod's Last Will
188 (Herod's) will was changed again (just before he died). His change of plans had (Herod) Antipas, to whom he had previously left the kingship, appointed tetrarch of Galilee and Perea [ = Jordan]. The kingship (of Judea and Samaria) was granted to Archelaus.
189 Golan, Trachan, Bathan and Paneas were to be a tetrarchy for his son Philip, who was Archelaus' full-brother...*
195 The royal treasurer, Ptolemaļs, who had been entrusted with the king's seal, read the will, which was not to be confirmed before [Augustus] Caesar was consulted.
  --- Josephus, Antiquities 17.188-189, 195
* full-brother: error for "half-brother." In listing Herod's wives & their sons, Josephus presents Archelaus & Antipas as sons of the Samaritan Malthace (& hence full-brothers) & Philip as son of Cleopatra of Jerusalem. Since Herod had 16 children by 8 of his 10 wives, Josephus' momentary confusion regarding his heirs' exact relationship is understandable.

30. Temple Massacre [Spring 4 BCE]
213 Now (in 4 BCE) while all this was going on, the time came for the feast in which matzos are set out by the Jews in accord with the fathers. And the feast is called Passover, which commemorates their exodus from Egypt. And they celebrate it with zeal, as it is their custom to slaughter more sacrifices than at any other time.
214 And a great number of people came down from the country and also from overseas to worship God. Now the revolutionaries who were mourning the interpreters of the Torah, Judah and Matthias, stood together in the temple, furnishing food for the dissidents. For the latter were not ashamed to beg for it.
215 Archelaus was afraid that something terrible would develop from their desperation. So he sent a cohort of (Roman) legionnaires under a tribune to suppress the impetuousness of the dissidents, before they infected the whole gathering with their fanaticism. And if some stood out more than the others in their zeal for dissidence, they were to be brought to him.
216 The partisans of the interpreters (of the Torah) and the crowd were enraged at this. Letting out a shout and a cheer, they rushed at the soldiers. And having surrounded them, they stoned most of them. But a few of them, including the tribune, escaped wounded. Now, when this was over, they turned their hands to the sacrifice again.
217 But Archelaus thought the whole situation impossible to salvage, except by checking the crowd's impulse to (do) such a thing. So he sent out his whole army, including the (Roman) cavalry, to prevent those who were camped there (around Jerusalem) from aiding those who were in the temple...
218 Now the cavalry killed about 3000 men. But the rest went up into the hills that lay nearby. So Archelaus proclaimed that all should return to their homes. Even those who were venturesome from lack of education left the feast, giving it up in fear of greater harm.
  --- Josephus, Antiquities 17.213-218

31. Many Claim Kingship [Summer 4 BCE]
222 But when Archelaus sailed off to Rome and Varus [governor of Syria, 6-4 BCE] went to take care of Antioch, Sabinus [procurator of Syria] advanced on Jerusalem and took the king's [Herod's] possessions...
224 Now at this time Herod's son Antipas also sailed to Rome to contest the kingship, buoyed up by Salome's promises supporting (his) rule. He claimed (Herod's) things with more right than Archelaus because he had been proclaimed in (Herod's) former will...
269 [While Archelaus and Antipas were in Rome], a thousand other disturbances also took Judea by surprise. And many rushed from many parts to make war, out of hatred for the Jews and in hopes of advancing their own people...
271 There was Judah, son of Hezekiah, the powerful bandit chief whom Herod had captured with difficulty. Now this Judah assembled a host of desperate men near Sepphoris in Galilee and attacked the king's palace. And having gotten his hand on all the weapons stored there, he armed everyone around him and took all the treasures seized there.
272 So he was a terror to all by raiding and plundering those he encountered in his desire for fortune and his zeal to be recognized as king. This prize he expected to win, not by virtue but by trampling over everybody.
273 There was also King Herod's slave, Simon, a handsome man, great especially in physical size and strength, as well as his self-esteem. Inebriated by the unsettled situation, he dared to don the [royal] diadem.
274 Now he assembled some crowds and, in their fanaticism, he was heralded as the king himself. And he hoped to be more worthy than anyone...
278 And then there was Athronges, a man distinguished neither by worthiness of his forebears nor by outstanding virtue or the greatness of any traits. Rather, he was a shepherd, unknown to anyone anywhere, except for his physical size and striking feats of strength. He dared to claim the kingship, planning, if he got it, to delight in more prancing about. If he died, he did not think his life too great a price to pay for this.
279 There were also his four brothers, who were both tall and confident, projecting great physical power. They believed themselves to be prominent in retaining his kingship. Each of them led a band, for a great crowd had gathered to them.
280 Now, while they were commanders, they were also subordinate to him whenever they set out to fight on their own. Athronges wore a diadem and convoked a council for judging what they were to do. And he had everything dependent on him.
281 Power remained with him for quite a while, for he was called king, and no one prevented him from doing what he wanted...
285 So Judea was filled with bandits. And they gathered around any champion who presented himself as king, urging the destruction of the commonwealth. This caused the Romans---just a few---only a little trouble; but it brought on the greatest slaughter of their own (Jewish) kin.
  --- Josephus, Antiquities 17.222-224, 269-285

32. Romans Subdue Galilee [Summer 4 BCE]
288 (In 4 BCE) with all his forces at Ptolemaļs [=Akko], (Varus) transferred part to his son and one of his friends, sending them out to fight the Galileans in the area near Ptolemaļs [southwestern Galilee]. Attacking them, (Varus' son) routed them in battle. He attacked Sepphoris [4 mi. from Nazareth], enslaved the inhabitants and burned the city...
295 But Varus sent (another) part of his army around the countryside, seeking those to blame for the revolt. And when they were pointed out, he punished those who were guilty. There were also those he pardoned. But 2000 happened to be crucified because of this accusation.
  --- Josephus, Antiquities 17.288, 295

33. Roman Census & Jewish Tax Revolt [6 CE]
1 Now (in 6 CE) Quirinius arrived in Syria with a small contingent, since he had been sent out by [Augustus] Caesar, to govern the people and assess their wealth.
2 Coponius, a cavalry officer, was sent along with him with full authority to govern the Jews. Since Judea had been annexed to Syria, Quirinius also came to assess them as well and to sell off Archelaus' estate.
3 At first (the Jews) complained on hearing of the census. But they settled down when the high priest, Joazar ben Boethus, persuaded them not to resist further. So, on the one hand, those who yielded to Joazar's arguments did not hesitate in estimating their possessions.
4 But Judah, a man of Golan from a city called Gamala, whose partner was a Pharisee Zaddok, plunged into rebellion. They claimed that taxation was nothing but outright slavery. And they called on the people to claim their freedom, (saying):
5 If they should produce this correction, the foundation for prosperity would be laid. But if they fell short of gaining this good, they would have earned honor and fame for their great spirit. And (they claimed) God would help bring their plans to success. And he would reward their zeal all the more, if they were committed to stick to their intent and not stop their slaughtering.
6 Now as the men received all that was said with pleasure, this plot made great progress. There is no evil that did not spring from these men; and the people were divided beyond description.
7 Endless fighting broke out, the sort where no one has control. And they eliminated friends and those who might have lessened the ordeal. Turmoil was raised by great numbers of bandits; and there were assassinations of prominent men. Some had a belief that they were righting the community. But in fact they were hoping to advance their own people.
8 From these sprang dissensions among themselves and political murders. Some (died) in battle, some in the slaughter of kin, in a mania of men disposing of one another and themselves in (their) desire not to be left to their opponents. A famine was the final insult. And there was conquest and destruction of cities, until even the temple of God was consumed by fire from the hostilities (in 70 CE). This faction was (responsible for all that).
9 The innovation and transformation of traditions has the impact of ending the consensus. In this case, at least, Judah and Zaddok gave rise to a fourth philosophy that was foreign to us. And gaining those who admire this, for the time being they filled the commonwealth with chaos and in turn planted the roots of the subsequent evils.
23 Now in the fourth of the philosophies, Judah the Galilean established himself as chief. All the rest profess the thought of the Pharisees. But they have an unconquerable love of freedom. For them God is the only leader and master. They think it little to submit to tortuous forms of death and punishment of family and friends over (the issue of) calling no man "master."
  --- Josephus, Antiquities 18.1-9, 23

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