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327. Prophetic Inspiration
49 For generally the prophet proclaims nothing on his own. Rather, he merely lends his voice to him who prompts everything that he says. When he is inspired he becomes unconscious. Thought fades away and leaves the fortress of the soul. But the divine Spirit has entered there and and made its dwelling. And it makes all the vocal organs sound, so that the man expresses clearly what the Spirit gives him to say.
  --- Philo, Special Laws 4.49

328. Foreign Gods as Demons
17 (The Israelites) offered sacrifices to demons, to no-gods,
to gods that they had not known,
demons who had just come,
who had not frightened their fathers.
  --- Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy 32:17

329. Demonic Sacrifices
34 They did not exterminate the peoples as the LORD had commanded them;
35 but they mixed with the nations and learned their deeds.
36 They served their idols; and this became their trap.
37 They sacrificed their sons and their daughters to demons.
38 They shed innocent blood, the blood of their sons and daughters,
whom they sacrificed to the idols of Canaan,
and polluted the land with blood.
39 And they became filthy in their deeds, and wanton in their violence.
  --- Hebrew Bible, Psalm 106:34-39

330. Pagan Worship Demonic
19 What am I saying then? that idol worship is something?
or that an idol is something?
20 Rather, that what they sacrifice is to demons and not to God.
And I don't want you to become partners of demons.
21 You can't drink (the) Lord's cup and a cup of demons.
You can't share (the) Lord's table and a table of demons.
  --- Paul, 1 Corinthians 10:19-21

331. Demonic Terror
19 Do you believe that God is one? You do well! 
The demons also believe and tremble with fear!
  --- James 2:19

332. A Syrian Exorcist
16 I would like to ask you then what you say
about those who deliver demoniacs from their terrors 
so clearly enchanting even the phantoms?
I do not need to say this, 
but all know the Syrian from Palestine, 
the master in all things.
Those taken to falling down before the moon, 
with eyes rolling and foaming at the mouth, 
he even makes stand up and sends them away whole,
freeing (them) from the horrors for a big fee.
When he is with sick persons, he asks where (the demons) entered into their bodies. 
The patient remains silent, 
but the demon replies in Greek or a barbarian (language), and tells what he is, 
where he comes from, and how he entered into the man (anthropon). 
This is the moment to command him to come out. 
If he resists, (the Syrian) threatens and drives the demon out.
  --- Lucian, Philopseudes 16

333. Jewish Exorcist uses Solomon's Methods
45 God helped him (Solomon) learn also the technique to heal and treat men against demons. He also composed incantations by which (spiritual) disorders are remedied. And he left behind methods of exorcism by which the possessor will drive out demons so that they never return.
46 Even up to now [ca. 90 CE] this therapy is most powerful among us. For I have observed an Eleazar -- one of my own line -- free those possessed by demons in the presence of Vespasian [the emperor], his sons and tribunes, and a host of other commanders. The method of therapy was like this:
47 He would hold a ring that had one of those roots prescribed by Solomon under its seal to the nose of the demoniac; then, when he smelled (it), the demon came out through the (victim's) nostrils. And when the man collapsed on the spot, (Eleazar) made  it swear never to enter him again, invoking Solomon and reciting incantations he (Solomon) had composed.
48 Wishing to persuade those nearby and give proof that he had this power, Eleazar would place a cup or bowl full of water nearby and would order the demon to upset them on exit and produce evidence for the onlookers that it had actually left the man.
  --- Josephus, Antiquities 8.45-48

334. Solomon and Beelzebul
1 And again I summoned Beelzebul, the prince of demons, to stand before me; and I sat him down on a high seat of honor and asked him:
-- "Why are you alone, prince of demons?"
2 He told me:
-- "Because of (all) of heaven's angels descended, I alone am left. For in the first heaven, I was first angel, named Be'el-zebul ["Lord of heaven"].
And now I control all those who are bound in Tartarus..."
3 I, Solomon, asked him:
-- "Beelzebul, what is your job?"
4 He replied to me:
-- "I destroy kings. I ally myself with tyrants.
And I send my own demons, so that men may believe in them and be lost.
And I incite God's chosen servants, priests and pious men, to want wicked sins, evil heresies and lawless deeds. And they obey me and I carry them to destruction. And I inspire men with envy and murder, wars and sodomy, and other evils. And I will destroy the world..."
8 I said to him:
-- "Tell me, by what angel are you checked?"
He replied:
-- "By the holy and precious Name of God Almighty, whom the Hebrews call by a string of numbers totaling 664; and with the Greeks it is "Emmanuel"; and when a Roman orders me by the great name of the power of Eleeth, I vanish immediately."

I, Solomon, was amazed when I heard this. And I commanded him to saw up Theban marbles. And when he started sawing the marbles, the other demons shrieked out loud, howling for their king.

  --- Pseudepigrapha, Testament of Solomon 6:1-4, 8-9 [ms. P]

335. Bargaining with Demons
  It is taught:
Do not go out alone at night --- (that is), neither at night on Wednesdays nor at night on Sabbaths.
For in former times Agrath, the daughter of (the demon) Mahalath, used to go out with eighteen legions of destroying angels. And every one of them had power to destroy on his own. At first they were around at all times during the day. Once she ran into Rabbi cHanina ben Dosa. She said to him:
-- "I would have harmed you, if it were not for this pronouncement about you in heaven: 'Heed cHanina and his teaching!'"
He told her:
-- "If I am reckoned with in heaven, I sentence you never to pass through the world again!"
She said to him:
-- "I beg you, leave me a little room!"
So he left the Sabbath nights and Wednesday nights for her.
  --- Babylonian Talmud, Pesachim 114

336. Watering Unclean Spirits
  A pagan told Rabbi Johanan ben Zakkai:
-- "These rituals that you perform look like a type of magic.
You bring a heifer, burn it, beat it and keep its ashes.
If one of you is defiled by a dead body, you sprinkle two or three drops of it (in water) on him and tell him:
-- "You are clean!"
Rabbi Johanan asked him:
-- "Has the demon of madness ever possessed you?"
He replied:
-- "No."
Rabbi Johanan:
-- "Have you ever seen a man possessed by this demon of madness?"
He said:
-- "Yes."
Rabbi Johanan:
-- "What do you do in that case?"
He replied:
-- "We bring roots and make them smoke under him. Then we sprinkle water on the demon and it leaves."
Rabbi Johanan told him:
-- "Your ears should listen to what your mouth says.
This spirit is an unclean spirit just like the other.
Purifying water is sprinkled on the unclean and the spirit leaves,
as it is written:
-- 'And I will make the prophets and the unclean spirit leave the land' (Zech 13:2).
When the pagan had left, Rabbi Johanan's disciples said to their teacher:
-- "Master, you put this man off with an improvisation. What explanation (of the ritual of the ashes of the red heifer) will you give us?"
He told them:
-- "You bet your life, it isn't the dead that defiles or the water that purifies!
The Holy One, blessed be he!, says only:
-- 'I have established a statute. I have issued a decree. You are not allowed to transgress my decree, as it is written:
-- "This is a statute of the Law"'" (Num 19:2).
  --- Midrash, Bemidbar Rabba Hukkat 19.8

337. Teaching Authority & Exorcism
20 As (Apollonius) was discussing libations, there was a youth nearby who had such a name for luxury and vulgarity that by then there were even street songs about him. His homeland was Corcyra and he was descended from Alcinus, Odysseus' Phaecian host.
 Apollonius was speaking about libations and told them not to drink from this cup but to keep it untouched and unused for the gods. But when he told them also to put handles on the cup and (in the libation) to pour it over these --- since men are less apt to drink (there) ---, the youth drowned out his word with loud and course laughter.
 Looking up at him, (Apollonius) said:
-- "These insults are not from you but from the demon who drives you without your knowing it."
 The youth was in fact demon-possessed, for he laughed at things that no one else did. And then he would change to weeping without having any reason to. And he would talk and sing to himself. Now, the people thought that it was the unruliness of youth that led him to do these things. But it was the demon acting. And he seemed to be drunk only because he was then drinking.
 Apollonius stared at him; and the phantom started uttering sounds of fear and rage, like those who are burnt and tortured. And (the phantom) promised to leave the youth alone and never take possession of people again. But speaking with anger like a master to a slave who is unstable, mischievous, shameless, and so forth, (Apollonius) ordered him to depart and to provide proof (that he had done so).
 (The demon) said:
-- "I will knock down that statue," pointing to one of those on the royal porch. When the statue first shook and then fell, there was more commotion and applause at the marvel than anyone could write about. But the youth just rubbed his eyes, as if he was waking up and saw the sun's rays. And he won the attention over everyone who turned to him. For he no longer seemed vulgar, nor did he cast his eyes wildly about. But he returned to his natural self, as if he had been medicated. And he threw away the gowns and dresses of Sybarites and developed a love for a rough shirt and cloak and modeled his behavior on that of Apollonius.
  --- Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 4.20

338. An Uncontrollable Teen
  In the middle of these sayings, the messenger arrived with Indians begging the sages for help. He presented a woman pleading for her child. She said he was sixteen years old; and for two years he had a demon. The demon's behavior was irony and lying. One of the sages asked why she said this.
She said:
-- "This child is very good looking, so the demon is in love. He doesn't let him have a mind to go either to school or archery practice or even to stay home. He drives him out to deserted spots. The boy no longer even has his own voice. His speech is deep and hollow like that of adult males. And he stares with someone else's eyes rather than his own. And I weep and claw my face and try to call my son back any way I can. But he does not know me.
 "When I planned my trip here --- this was planned a year ago --- the demon revealed himself by using the child as his persona. He told me he is the phantom of a man who died in battle long ago. He died loving his wife. But three days after his death his wife insulted his bed by marrying again. He came to loathe the love of women and redirected it to this child. If I agreed not to denounce him before you, he promised me he will give my son much fortune and good. For these things I endured this for awhile. But he has already deceived me for a long time. And he has complete control of my house, plotting nothing fair or true."
   (Apollonius) the sage asked again if the child were nearby.
But she said:
-- "No. I tried many things to make him come. But the demon threatens to jump off cliffs and into pits and to kill my son, if I bring him here for trial."
The sage said:
-- "Courage! he will not kill him when he reads this."
And taking a letter from his shirt, he gave it to the woman. Now the letter was addressed to the phantom with threatening and terrifying (words).
  --- Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 3.38

339. Demonic Wisdom?
  (Apollonius) reached ancient Nineveh, where he found a statue in a barbaric style. It was (the moon goddess) Io, daughter of Inarchus, and short horns appeared to be coming from her forehead. While he was lecturing there and gathering more about the image than the priests and prophets (did), Damis the Ninevite became his student. He is the one whom I said in the beginning became (Apollonius') travel companion and associate in all wisdom. And he preserved many things about the man. He adored him and showed zeal for his way (of life). He said:
-- "Let's go, Apollonius. You follow God and I (will follow) you. For you also will find me worth much. If I know nothing else, at least I have been to Babylon. I know where cities are, having been up there not long ago. And I know villages in which there is much that is good. And there are several barbaric languages --- there is that of the Armenians, that of Medes and Persians, and that of Kadushites. I am familiar with all of them."
(Apollonius) said:
-- "And I, comrade, comprehend all without studying a single one."
The Ninevite was amazed.
(Apollonius) said:
-- "You shouldn't be amazed because I know all human languages. For I also know whatever humans are silent about."
When the Assyrian heard this, he worshipped him and even regarded him as a demon. And he stayed with him, Apollonius bestowing wisdom and the other memorizing what he learned.
  --- Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 1.19

340. Demonic Wit
  An epidemic which the doctors call influenza hit Rome. It stirred up coughing fits and speakers' voices became bad. Now temples were full of people petitioning the gods because Nero had a sore throat and was suffering with a husky voice.
Apollonius let out (a comment) on the insanity of the crowd, but criticized no one. Rather he even calmed Menippus, who was irritated by such things, and cautioned him:
-- "Excuse the gods, if they are pleased to be mimicked by clowns."
 When this saying was reported to Tigellinus [the chief of Nero's secret police], he sent agents to put (Apollonius) in prison, since he was charged with irreverence to Nero. A prosecutor who had already already done away with many and a veteran of such Olympiads was appointed for him. In his hands he had a certain writ on which the charge had been written. And he held it up to the man, like a sword, and said it was sharp enough to ruin him. But when Tigellinus unrolled the writ, he did not find a trace of writing on it. He was confronted by a blank book. So he thought he was dealing with a demon. It is said that later Domitian also felt this way about (Apollonius).
 Then taking Apollonius, (Tigellinus) entered a secret court in which the officer in question passed judgment on major cases in private. When he had made everyone (else) leave, he interrogated (Apollonius), asking who he might be. Apollonius mentioned his father and his homeland, and explained why he preoccupied himself with wisdom. He said he practiced it to know the gods and to understand the (lot) of humans. For it is harder to know another than to know oneself.
(Tigellinus) said:
-- "How do you rebuff demons and the appearance of phantoms, Apollonius?"
(Apollonius) replied:
-- "Like murderers and irreverent humans."
 He said this as an insult to Tigellinus, who was Nero's teacher in every cruelty and brutality...
(Tigellinus) said:
-- "Why aren't you afraid of Nero?"
(Apollonius) replied:
-- "Because the God who lets him seem frightening also made me to be unafraid."
(Tigellinus) said:
-- "What is your opinion of Nero?"
(Apollonius) replied:
-- "Higher than yours. For you hold him worthy to sing, but I (hold) him worthy of silence."
Shocked by this, Tigellinus said:
-- "You may go. But you must post a bond for your body."
Apollonius said:
--"And what will be the bond for a body which no one will bind?"
 To Tigellinus, these things seemed to be demonic and beyond human (wit); and since he was too cautious to match wits with a god, he said:
-- "Go where you want. For you are too powerful to be ruled by me."
  --- Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 4.44

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