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233. Teacher of Righteousness
1 Now hear this, all you who know righteousness and perceive the works
2 of God.
For he has a case against all flesh, and will pass judgment on all who spurn him.
3 For when of old they forsook him, he hid his face from Israel and its sanctuary
4 and gave them up to the sword.
But remembering the covenant of the forefathers, he left a remnant
5 for Israel and did not give them up to destruction.
And at the end of his wrath he visited them---three hundred
6 and ninety years after he delivered them into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon (597-582 BCE).
7 And he made the root he had planted spring up from Israel and Aaron to inherit
8 his land and to fatten on the good of his ground.
And they perceived their iniquity and knew
9 that they were men of guilt. But they were like the blind, and for
10 twenty years groped for the Way.
And God observed their deeds, for they sought him with a sound heart [leb shalem];
11 and he raised up for them a Teacher of Righteousness [moreh zedeq]
to lead them in the Way of his heart.
And he acquainted
12 later generations with what he would do in the last generation,
in the congregation of traitors,
13 those who resist the Way.
  --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant (CD) 1.1-13

234. Secrets of the End-Time
1 And God told Habakkuk to write what will happen
2 in the last generation. But he did not let him know the end of the period.
3 Now regarding the saying,
"so he may run [yarutz] who reads it [ha qore]" (Hab 2:2):
4 Unraveled, this is about the Teacher of Righteousness, to whom God made known
5 all the secrets [razei] of the words of his servants, the prophets.
  --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Habakkuk Midrash (1QpHab) 7.1-5

235. Secrets of Righteousness
27 Through me you have enlightened the countenance of the masses
and (have revealed) your might beyond measure.
For you have given me knowledge through your wondrous secrets,
28 and through your wondrous counsel [sod] you have grown strong within me.
You have done wonders before the masses for the sake of your glory
and to make
29 your wondrous deeds known to all the living
What is flesh compared to this?
And what is massive form (next) to the greatness of wonders?
(A human) is in the wrong
30 from the womb
and guilty of fraud to old age.
And I know that righteousness is not man's
and the perfect Way not the son of man's.
31 To God Most High (belong) all righteous deeds;
the way of man is not made firm except by the Spirit God formed for him
32 to perfect the Way for the sons of man:
to make all his works know the power of (God's) might
and the multitude of his mercies to all the sons
33 of his pleasure.
  --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Thanksgiving Scroll (1QH) 4.27-33

236. Separation from Judah
10 And at the end of the age, in accord with the record of those years,
11 there shall be no more attachment to the house of Judah.
Rather each man shall stand
12 on his stronghold. The wall will be built up,
"the boundary flung afar" [Micah 7:11].
  --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant (CD) 4.10-12

237. The Rod & the Well
2 And God remembered the covenant of the forefathers; and raising up from Aaron perceptive men and from Israel
3 wise men, he made them hear. And they dug into the Well,
"the well which the princes dug,
4 which the nobles of the people delved with the rod" (Num 21:18).
The Well is the Torah; and those who "dug"
5 are the repentant of Israel:
those who went out of the land of Judah and dwelt in the land of Damascus.
6 God called them all "princes" because they sought him [derashuhu], and no one spoke
7 to deny their glory.
And the "Rod" [mehoqeq]* is the interpreter [doresh] of the Torah.
8 of whom Isaiah said:
--"God makes a tool for his work" (Isa 54:16).
And the "nobles of the people" are those
9 who dig into the well with commandments [mehoqqoth] which the Rod commanded
10 for them to walk in during the whole term of wickedness.
Without these they would not go far
11 until the one who teaches righteousness stands up in the last days.
  --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant (CD) 6.2-11
* mehoqeq: lit: "commander"

238. Pre-Messianic Organization
22 And this is the rule for settling in c[amps]:
23 During the time of evil, those who walk by these things are to be at least ten men---until the Messiah of Aaron
1 and Israel stands up---(and organized) into thousands , hundreds, fifties
2 and tens [cf. Exod 18:25]....
  --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant (CD) 12.22-13.2

239. The Overseer
7 And this is the rule for the camp's overseer [mebaqer]:
he shall give the masses insight into the works
8 of God, and shall make them see the wonder of his mighty deeds,
and shall recount for them what happened of old.
9 And he shall have compassion on them, like a father towards his sons;
and he shall carry them through all their distress, like a shepherd with his flock.
10 He shall loosen all the ties that bind them,
that there shall be none oppressed or broken in his congregation...
8 ...And the overseer
9 of all the camps (shall be) from thirty to fifty years (old), familiar with every
10 secret [sod] of men and all the languages of their families.
Initiates shall enter the community according to his say,
11 each in his rank.
And let any man report to the overseer any matter that he might have
12 about any case or judgment.
  --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant (CD) 13.7-10, 14.8-12

240. The Messiah's Sword
5 But all who reject the commandments
6 and precepts shall bring the reward of the wicked on themselves
when God visits the earth [aretz],
7 when the word written by the hand of the prophet Zechariah shall come (true):
8 awake upon my Shepherd
and upon the man associated with me, says God.
Strike the Shepherd and the sheep will be scattered;
9 but I will turn my hand upon the little ones" (Zech 13:7).
Now those who hear him are the flock's afflicted,
10 these will escape in the period of (God's) visitation.
But those who remain will be offered up to the sword, when the Messiah
11 of Aaron and Israel comes, as it was in the period of the first visitation,
12 as he reported by the hand of Ezekiel:
--"A mark shall be put on the forehead of those who sigh and groan" (Ezek 9:4).
13 But those who remained were given up to the sword of vengeance,
the avenger of the Covenant...
32 And a like judgment is on all who reject the commandments of God
33 and forsake them and turn away in the stubbornness of their hearts.
Likewise, of all who entered into the New Covenant
34 in the land of Damascus: if anyone turns back
and betrays it and departs from the Well of living waters [beer mayim hachayyim]
35 he shall neither be counted in the council of the people
nor recorded in their roll, from the day
1 of the Teacher of the Community until the Messiah of Aaron and Israel rises up.
  --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant (CD) 19.5-13,32-20.1

241. The Judgment of Israel
13 And from the day
14 the Director of the Community [yoreh ha yahad] was gathered in until the end
15 of all the men of war who went with the Liar [ish ha kazab], there will be about forty years. And in this period
16 the wrath of God will be kindled against Israel, as he said:
--"(There shall be) no kings and no prince" (Hosea 3:4),
and no judge and none
17 to testify with righteousness...
22 (But all members of) the house of separation [peleg] who left the holy city [= Jerusalem]
23 and relied on God in the period when Israel cheated and soiled the sanctuary
and (who) returned
24 to God and [the Way] of the people in minute matters,
each shall be judged according to his spirit
25 in the council of holiness.
And all who entered into the covenant, yet took away the limit of the Torah:
26 when the glory of God shall be revealed to Israel,
they shall be cut off from the camp along with all who condemned
27 Judah in the days of its trials.
  --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant (CD) 20.13-17, 22-27

242. Last Priests of Jerusalem
3 "For you have plundered many nations,
and you shall be plundered by all
4 the remnant of the peoples" (Hab 2:8).
Unraveled, this is about the last priests of Jerusalem
5 who shall get wealth and booty from plundering the peoples.
6 But in the last days, their wealth and their plunder their wealth
and their plunder shall be given into the hand(s)
7 of the army of the Kittim.* For they shall be "the remnant of the peoples."
  --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Habakkuk Midrash (1QpHab) 9.3-7
* Kittim: Hebrew name for Cyprus. In this and other writings of the Roman period, like the War Scroll below, it is a code name for the Romans.

243. Sons of Light vs. Sons of Darkness
8 (...righteousness) shall enlighten all the ends of the world.
And the light will proceed until all the times of darkness are ended.
And in the time of God, his great glory will shine for peace and blessing for all times.
9 (There shall be) glory and joy and length of days for all the sons of light.
And on the day the Kittim fall,
(there shall be) a battle and a fierce slaughter before the God
10 of Israel.
For this is the day he appointed from of old,
for a war to annihilate the sons of darkness.
Then the congregation of gods and the assembly of man
shall draw near for the great slaughter.
11 The sons of light and the lot of darkness shall do battle together
for the Strength of God
amid the sound of a great throng and the cries of gods and men.
This is "the Day" [cf. Jer 30:7]
12 and it shall be a "time of distress" for the people God redeems.
And there will be "nothing like it" in all their distress from the beginning
to (its) end in everlasting redemption.
  --- Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll (1QM) 1.8-12

244. Michael, the Angelic Ruler
5 The day is the time he appointed to humble and bring low the prince of the kingdom
6 of wickedness.
And he shall send everlasting aid to the lot he has redeemed,
by the strength of the majestic angel,
to those ruled by Michael in everlasting light [cf. Dan 12:1]
7 to enlighten the Co(venant of I)srael with joy.
(There shall be) peace and blessing for the lot of God
to raise up the rule of Michael among the gods and the dominion
8 of Israel among all flesh.
The Righteous One shall rejoice in the heights;
and all the sons of his Truth will be blessed with everlasting knowledge.
And you sons of his Covenant,
9 be strong when God tries you.
His secrets will support you until he hastens his hand and his trials to cease.
  --- Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll (1QM) 17.5-9

245. The Son of David & the Teacher of Torah
10 "(And) the LORD (de)clares that he will build you a house..." and
"I will raise up your seed after you..." and
"I will establish the throne of his kingdom
11 (forev)er. I (will b)e his Father and he shall be my son" (2 Sam 7:11-14).
He is the Branch of David who will rise up with the Interpreter of the Torah [doresh haTorah]
12 (to rule) in Zi(on at the) end of days, as it is written:
--"I will raise up the tent of David which has fallen" (Amos 9:11).
The "tent
13 of David which has fallen" is he who will stand up to save Israel.
  --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Messianic Florilegia (4Qflor) 1.10-13

246. Melchizedek's Jubilee
  (And con)cerning his saying (Lev 25:13):
--"In this year of ju(bilee you shall restore a man to his inheritance"):
(Unraveled, this is...?)
(And concerning his saying (Deut 15:2):)
--"Every master [ba'al] (shall relea)se his hand concerning his claim (upon his neighbor; he shall not exact it of his neighbor and his brother, because he has declared the) release for G(od.")
(Unraveled, this is for the en)d of days.
(It is) about the captives which (?...Belial) bound
(?...?) and from the inheritance of Melchizedek fo(r...)
and they are the inherit(ance of Melchize)dek, who will restore them;
and he will declare freedom [deror]* for them
to release them (and to atone) for their sins
and (?...?) this word, in the la(s)t year of jubilee (?...?)
(?...?) the (t)enth (ju)bilee (?...?),
in which to atone for all the sons
(of light)
(and the) men of the (l)ot of Mel(chi)zedek
?...?) over (th)em (?...?) because that is the end [qetz]**
to the acceptable year of Melchize(dek...?)
(?...?) and the holy ones of God to the realm of judgment;
as it is written about him in the Songs of David, who says
(Ps 82:1):
--"God [Elohim] (stand)s in the coun(cil of God [El]);
in the midst of the gods [elohim] he judges."
(David) says about him (Ps 7:7f):
-- "Return to the height (a)bove them.
[El]*** will judge the peoples."
And as he sa(ys; Ps 82:2):
--"(How long will) you judge falsely
and li(ft up) the face of the wick(ed? Se)lah."
[pishru], this is about Belial and his lot of spir(it)s,
(?...?). And Melchizedek will exact
the ven(ge)ance of the judg(me)nts of G(od);
(?...from the hand of Be)lial and the hand of all the (spirits of his lot).
And in his aid are the gods [eli(m)] (on high).
He (?...al)l the sons of Mi(gh)t and the (?...?) this.
That is the day of
(And wh)at is written (for the end of days by Isai)ah the prophet,
who say
(s) (Isa 52:7):
--"(How) beautiful upon the mountains
are the feet of him who bears good n
(he who) proclaims peace, who be(ars good news of good),
(he who proclaims salva)tion,
who says to Zion: Your God
(is king [melek])****"
This is unraveled:
"the mountain(s": these are...?) for all (?...?).
--"he who bears good news": h(e is the one an)ointed by the Spir(it);
of him Dan(iel) says (Dan 9:25):
("Until an anointed prince, it is seven weeks.")
"(...who bears good news of) good, he who proclai(ms salvation)."
That is what is
w(ritt)en about him, where he (says):
--"(?...?) to com(fort all who mourn" Isa 61:2).*****
(?...?) he will make them wise in all the times (of wrath)
(?...in) truth (?...?)
(?...she) turns away from Belial and (?...?)
(?...?) by the judgment(s) of God,
as it is written about him
(Isa 52:7):
--"(He who says to Zi)on: Your God is king!"
("Zi)on": th(at is...?)
(?...those) who establish the covenant,
those who turned away from walking
(in the w)ay of the peoples.
"Your G(o)d": that is (?...from) Belial.
And where he says
(Lev 25:9):
"You shall direct the trump(et to sound in) all (the la)nd..."
  --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Melchizedek Fragment (11Qmelch)
[NOTE: This text was originally a good example of messianic exegesis at Qumran. But the poor condition of the ms. fragment delayed its publication and prevented its inclusion in the popular collections of the Dead Sea scrolls. Wording that is decipherable, printed in boldface, though often lacking coherence, offers important points of comparison with messianic passages in the NT. So it is presented here, despite the difficult reading caused by the frequent sizeable lacunae (?...?), which prevent a complete and exact reconstruction. The conjectural portions of the translation (text in parentheses), follow the readings suggested by M. deJonge and A.S. vander Woude (NTS 12, 1965-66) or G. Martinez and E.J.C. Tigchelaar (Dead Sea Scrolls, 2008)].
* deror: or "pardon."
** qetz: or "time." Hebrew word has same connotations of English "term."
*** El: ms. varies from Massoretic text, which has here: YHWH ("Lord").
**** lit: "Melek is your God." While this verse is clearly the source of the author's identification of Melchizedek with passages in the Psalms referring to "God," it is unclear whether he read it as a proclamation that God is king or that Melchizedek is divine.
***** Isa 61:2: com(fort all who mourn) is this translator's tentative reconstruction, made likely by the fact that the author has just identified the herald of Isa 52:7 was "anointed by the Spirit," a characteristic not mentioned in that passage but invoked in Isa 61:1.

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