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17. Caesar grants Antipater Roman Citizenship
127 After Pompey's death (in 44 BCE) and (Julius) Caesar's triumph, Antipater -- the administrator of the Jews by order of Hyrcanus (II) -- supplied Caesar with much that he needed, when he was at war with (Cleopatra VII of) Egypt.
137 So later, when Caesar had ended the war and sailed for Syria, he gave (Antipater) high honors. While he returned Hyrcanus to the high-priesthood, he granted Antipater Roman citizenship and freedom from taxation everywhere.
  --- Josephus, Antiquities 14.127, 137

18. Antipater takes control of Judea
156 Now (in 47 BCE) Caesar sailed away, having taken care of things in Syria. But after sending Caesar off from Syria, Antipater went back to Judea and went straight about erecting the wall (of Jerusalem) that had been pulled down by Pompey. And he put down the uproar around the country by at once advising and warning them to keep quiet.
157 For those who minded Hyrcanus' order were to stay safe and to live in peace, enjoying their own properties. But those who spread hope of a revolt and held out to profit from it were to have him [Antipater] as dictator instead of chief and Hyrcanus as master instead of king. And Caesar and the Romans would be bitter enemies rather than leaders. For they would not allow one whom they set up to be removed. By making speeches like this, (Antipater) established himself throughout the country.
  --- Josephus, Antiquities 14.156-157

19. Herod & Phasael suppress revolts
158 But seeing that Hyrcanus was slow and stupid, (Antipater) appointed his oldest son, Phasael, as governor of Jerusalem and its territory. And he entrusted Galilee to Herod, his next oldest, although he was still a youth. In fact, he was only fifteen. But his youth was no hindrance.
159 Rather, born shrewd, this young man found opportunity waiting to demonstrate his ability. For, on getting word that Hezekiah, the bandit chieftain, was overrunning the Syrian border with a big mob, (Herod) captured and executed him and many of the bandits with him.
160 Now the Syrians prized this deed of his very much. For he purged their territory of the bandits from whom they longed to be freed. And so for this they celebrated him throughout their villages and cities, saying he had restored peace and guaranteed them enjoyment of their properties. And so he became known to Sextus Caesar, the governor of Syria and relative of the great (Julius) Caesar.
  --- Josephus, Antiquities 14.158-160

20. Herod defies High Priest & Sanhedrin
163 But when the top Jews saw Antipater and his sons growing great from the favor of the people and the revenue from the Jews and Hyrcanus' wealth, they had a grudge against him...
165 And coming to Hyrcanus, they now openly accused Antipater, saying:
"How long will you be silent about what is happening? Or don't you see Antipater and his sons carrying the authority while you only hear the name 'king'.
166 But don't let these things escape you! And don't think yourself immune---at ease with yourself and the kingdom! For Antipater and his sons are not managers of your business. Don't fool yourself by thinking this! They are publicly recognized as masters.
167 Look how (Antipater's) son Herod has executed Hezekiah and many with him in violation of our Torah, which prohibits doing away with a man, even if he is evil, unless he is first condemned by the Sanhedrin to endure this. (Herod) ordered this without getting authorization from you."
168 Having heard this, Hyrcanus was convinced. And his fury was further inflamed by the mothers of those who had been killed by Herod. For every day they were in the temple, begging the king [Hyrcanus] and the people to bring Herod to trial in the Sanhedrin for what he had done.
169 So, moved by this, Hyrcanus called Herod to be tried on this charge...
171 But when Herod stood in the Sanhedrin surrounded by his soldiers, he struck terror in all of them. And none of those who brought charges before he arrived dared to accuse him any more. Instead, there was silence and doubt about what was to be done.
  --- Josephus, Antiquities 14.163-171

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