||Caesar grants Antipater Roman
death (in 44 BCE) and (Julius)
Caesar's triumph, Antipater
-- the administrator of the Jews by order of Hyrcanus
(II) -- supplied Caesar
with much that he needed, when he was at war with (Cleopatra
VII of) Egypt.
||So later, when Caesar had ended
the war and sailed for Syria, he gave (Antipater) high honors.
While he returned Hyrcanus to the high-priesthood, he granted
Antipater Roman citizenship and freedom from
control of Judea
||Now (in 47 BCE) Caesar
sailed away, having taken care of things in Syria. But after
sending Caesar off from Syria, Antipater
went back to Judea and went straight about erecting the wall
that had been pulled down by Pompey.
And he put down the uproar around the country by at once
advising and warning them to keep quiet.
||For those who minded
order were to stay safe and to live in peace, enjoying their
own properties. But those who spread hope of a revolt and held
out to profit from it were to have him [Antipater] as dictator
instead of chief and Hyrcanus as master instead of king. And
Caesar and the Romans would be bitter enemies rather than
leaders. For they would not allow one whom they set up to be
removed. By making speeches like this, (Antipater) established
himself throughout the country.
Phasael suppress revolts
||But seeing that Hyrcanus
was slow and stupid, (Antipater)
appointed his oldest son, Phasael,
as governor of Jerusalem
and its territory. And he entrusted Galilee
his next oldest, although he was still a youth. In fact, he
was only fifteen. But his youth was no hindrance.
||Rather, born shrewd,
this young man found opportunity waiting to demonstrate his
ability. For, on getting word that Hezekiah, the
bandit chieftain, was overrunning the Syrian border
with a big mob, (Herod) captured and executed him and many of
the bandits with him.
||Now the Syrians
prized this deed of his very much. For he purged their
territory of the bandits from whom they longed to be freed.
And so for this they celebrated him throughout their villages
and cities, saying he had restored peace and guaranteed them
enjoyment of their properties. And so he became known to Sextus
Caesar, the governor
of Syria and relative
of the great (Julius)
||Herod defies High
Priest & Sanhedrin
||But when the top Jews saw Antipater
sons growing great from
the favor of the people and the revenue from the Jews and Hyrcanus'
wealth, they had a grudge against him...
||And coming to
Hyrcanus, they now openly accused Antipater, saying:
"How long will you be silent about what is happening? Or
don't you see Antipater and his sons carrying the authority
while you only hear the name 'king'.
||But don't let these
things escape you! And don't think yourself immune---at ease
with yourself and the kingdom! For Antipater and his sons are
not managers of your business. Don't fool yourself by thinking
this! They are publicly recognized as masters.
||Look how (Antipater's)
has executed Hezekiah and many with him in
violation of our Torah,
which prohibits doing away with a man, even if he is evil,
unless he is first condemned by the Sanhedrin to endure this.
(Herod) ordered this without getting authorization from
||Having heard this,
Hyrcanus was convinced. And his fury was further inflamed by
the mothers of those who had been killed by Herod. For every
day they were in the temple, begging the king [Hyrcanus] and
the people to bring Herod to trial in the Sanhedrin
for what he had done.
||So, moved by this, Hyrcanus
called Herod to be tried on this charge...
||But when Herod stood in the
Sanhedrin surrounded by his soldiers, he struck terror in all
of them. And none of those who brought charges before he
arrived dared to accuse him any more. Instead, there was
silence and doubt about what was to be done.