Trypho [Diodotus]   [d. 138 BCE; suicide]

Rebel Hellenistic general & ally of Alexander Balas who used the latter's death (145 BCE) to seize royal power for himself. He set Balas' son on the throne as Antiochus VI, though he was just a young child, & acted as his regent. In 143 BCE he trapped Judah Maccabee's brother Jonathan at Ptolemaļs, ordered his execution & attempted to annex Judea. He then murdered Antiochus (142 BCE) & proclaimed himself king.

To avenge Jonathan's death, Simon -- the oldest surviving Hasmonean brother -- forged an alliance with Trypho's Seleucid rival, Demetrius II. After Demetrius was assassinated, his younger brother, Antiochus VII, finally drove Trypho into exile (138 BCE) where he committed suicide. While Trypho never consolidated his power & was not recognized as a legitimate monarch by neighboring rulers, he proved to be a vigorous & volatile catalyst, precipitating political events that destabilized other regimes & ultimately undermined Seleucid power.

References: 1 Maccabees 11:39-40, 54-57; 12:39-52; 13:1-32; 14:1; 15:10-14, 25, 37-41.
                   Josephus, Antiquities 13.131-134.
                   Livy, History of Rome 52, 55 [periochae].
                   Justin, Epitome 36.1; 39.1.  
                   Strabo, Geography 16.2.10.
                   Appian, Roman History: Syrian War 11.68.

Other resources on line:

Unlike his Seleucid predecessors & rivals, Trypho did not associate himself with the Hellenistic ruler cult. The face of this silver tetradrachma minted at Antioch ca. 140 BCE bears the usurper's likeness, but the reverse lacks traditional mythic imagery.  Instead, the inscription Basileos Tryphonos Autokratoros ["of King Trypho, Supreme Commander"] flanking a helmet & horn clearly bases his royal claims on his role as army commandant.

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