[d. 138 BCE; suicide]
Rebel Hellenistic general & ally
Balas who used the latter's death (145
BCE) to seize royal power for
himself. He set Balas' son on the throne as Antiochus
VI, though he was just a young child, & acted as his regent. In 143
BCE he trapped Judah
Maccabee's brother Jonathan
at Ptolemaļs, ordered
his execution & attempted to annex Judea.
He then murdered Antiochus (142
BCE) & proclaimed himself king.
To avenge Jonathan's
-- the oldest surviving Hasmonean brother -- forged an alliance with
Trypho's Seleucid rival, Demetrius
II. After Demetrius was assassinated, his younger brother,
Antiochus VII, finally drove Trypho into exile (138
BCE) where he committed
suicide. While Trypho never consolidated his power & was not
recognized as a legitimate monarch by neighboring rulers, he proved to be a
vigorous & volatile catalyst, precipitating political events that
destabilized other regimes & ultimately undermined Seleucid
Livy, History of Rome 52,
Strabo, Geography 16.2.10.
History: Syrian War 11.68.
Other resources on line:
Unlike his Seleucid predecessors & rivals,
Trypho did not associate himself with the Hellenistic ruler
cult. The face of this silver tetradrachma minted at Antioch ca.
140 BCE bears the
usurper's likeness, but the reverse lacks traditional mythic
imagery. Instead, the inscription Basileos Tryphonos
Autokratoros ["of King Trypho, Supreme Commander"]
flanking a helmet
& horn clearly bases his royal claims
on his role as army commandant.
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