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154. Sabbath Rest
7 Remember the Sabbath day and keep it sacred.
8 You shall labor for six days and do all your work.
9 But the seventh day is the Sabbath of the LORD your God.
no work is to be done then,
either by you or by your son or daughter,
or by your male or female servants,
or by your work animal,
or by a foreigner in your settlement.
10 In six days the LORD made skies and earth,
the sea and everything in them,
but on the seventh day he rested.
That is why the LORD blessed the Sabbath day 
and made it sacred.
  --- Hebrew Bible, Exodus 20:7-10

Essene Sabbath Prohibitions

155. Covenanters' Sabbath Rules
17 ...And on the Sabbath day no man shall speak
18 a foolish and empty word.
He shall lend nothing to his comrade.
He shall make no plan concerning wealth and profit.
19 He shall speak no word in matters of business or work to be done the next day.
20 No man shall walk in a field to do services for himself
21 on the Sabbath. He shall not walk more than a thousand cubits [= 500 yards] from his town.
22 No man shall eat on the Sabbath day except what was already prepared. Nor from what was lost
23 in a field. And he shall not eat and drink except in the camp...
  --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant (CD) 10.17-23

156. Covenanters: No Aid for Animals
13 No man shall help a beast give birth on the Sabbath day;
and if it falls in a pit
14 or a hollow, he shall not lift it out on the Sabbath.
  --- Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant (CD) 11.13-14

157. Rabbinic Definition of Work
2 The basic tasks are forty less one:
--sowing, plowing and reaping;
--binding sheaves, threshing and winnowing;
--polishing and grinding (grain);
--sifting, kneading and baking;
--shearing wool, washing or combing it;
--dyeing, spinning and weaving;
--making two loops. weaving two threads, undoing two threads;
--tying (a knot) or loosening (it);
--sewing two stitches or tearing in order to sew two stitches;
--hunting a deer; slaughtering, flaying or salting it;
--curing the skin, scraping or cutting it;
--writing two letters, erasing in order write two letters;
--building up or tearing down;
--kindling or extinguishing;
--hitting with a hammer; and
--carrying from place to place.
These are the basic tasks: forty less one.
  --- Mishna, Shabbath 7.2

158. Postponing the Sabbath
  Rabbi Aqiba (ben Joseph) declared a principle:
--"Any task that can be done on the eve of the Sabbath does not put off the Sabbath; but what cannot be done on the eve of the Sabbath puts off the Sabbath."
  --- Mishna, Shabbath 19.1

159. Rabbis: Feed Animals
  Our rabbis taught:
If one prepared bundles of straw or stalks or greens (before the Sabbath)
to feed (one's) animals (on the Sabbath), they may be moved;
but if not, they may not be moved.
Rabbi Simeon ben Gamaliel said:
--"Bundles which may be lifted with one hand may be moved;
but they may not be moved with two hands.
Bundles of savory, hyssop and thyme may not be used on the Sabbath,
if they were brought in for fuel;
(but if they were prepared) to feed animals,
one may use them on the Sabbath."
  --- Babylonian Talmud, Shabbath 128a

160. Plucking Grain on Sabbath
  "And one may pluck (grain) by hand and eat,
but only if one plucks without a utensil;
and one may rub [matal = "husk"]and eat,
but only if he does not rub a lot in a utensil."
These are the words of Rabbi Judah (ben El'ai).
But the sages say:
--"One may rub with the tips of his fingers and eat,
but only if he does not rub a lot with his hands
in the way he does on a weekday."
  --- Babylonian Talmud, Shabbath 128a

161. Childbirth on the Sabbath
3 They may help a woman give birth on the Sabbath,
and they may get a midwife for her from any place at all.
And, for her sake, they may break the Sabbath and tie up the naval.
Rabbi Josť (ben Halaphta) says:
--"They may even cut it and do anything needed for circumcision on the Sabbath."
  --- Mishna, Shabbath 18.3

162. Life-saving on the Sabbath
  Where (is the rationale for this) from:
--"To rescue a soul [nephesh] puts off the Sabbath"?
Rabbi Eleazar ben 'Atzariah said:
--"If circumcision, which concerns one of man's limbs, puts off the Sabbath,
qal wachomer: to rescue a soul puts off the Sabbath!"
  --- Babylonian Talmud, Shabbath 132a

163. Healing on the Sabbath
6 (On the Sabbath) one is not to work on an infant or set a fracture.
If one dislocated his hand or foot, he may not pour cold water on it;
but he may wash it in his (usual) way.
And if he is healed, he is healed.
  --- Mishna, Shabbath 22.6

164. Pain on the Sabbath
4 One who has pain in his teeth may not suck vinegar through them (on the Sabbath); but he may taste it in his (usual) way.
And if he is cured, he is cured.
One who has pain in his loins may not pour wine or vinegar (on them on the Sabbath); but he may anoint it with oil---but not with rose oil.
The sons of kings may anoint with rose oil,
because their way is to anoint (themselves) with it on a weekday.
  --- Mishna, Shabbath 14.4

165. Covenanters Imprison Sabbath Violators
3 ...No person who errs
4 in profaning the Sabbath and the feasts shall be executed;
but the men are responsible
5 for keeping him in custody.
Even if he is cured of his error, they are to keep him in custody for seven years, after which
6 he can be admitted to the congregation.
  ---- Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant (CD) 12.3-6

  Jerusalem Banishes Sabbath Violators

166. Daily Sacrifice & Passover
1 The daily sacrifice [tamid] was slain (in the Temple) at half past the eighth hour (2:30 p.m.) and offered up at half past the ninth hour. On the eve of Passover it was slain at half past the seventh hour and offered up at half past the eighth hour---whether on a weekday or the Sabbath. When the eve of Passover fell on the eve of the Sabbath, it was slain at half past the sixth hour (12:30 p.m.) and offered up at half past the seventh hour. And the Passover sacrifice [Pesach] followed it.
  --- Mishna, Pesachim 5.1

Hillel resolves Passover Halakha

167. The Passover Sacrifice
5 The paschal sacrifice [Pesach] was slain in three groups...
When the first group had entered, filling the (temple) court,
the doors of the court were closed.
A long note (was blown, then) a quavering note and a long note.
The priests stood row upon row
and in their hands were bowls of silver and gold
The gold row was all gold, the silver row all silver---they were not mixed.
And the bowls did not have bases,
lest (the priests) set them down and the blood congeal.
6 An Israelite would slay his lamb and the priest catch (the blood in a bowl)
and pass it to the one next to him, and he to the one next to him.
Each (priest) received a full (bowl) and gave back an empty one.
With one motion, the priest nearest the altar threw (the blood)
against the base (of the altar).
7 When the first group went out the second came in;
and when the second left the third came in.
The second and third did just what the first had done.
And they sang the Hallel.
  --- Mishna, Pesachim 5.5-7

168. Passover Meal
1 As the evening sacrifice approaches on the eve of the Passover,
no man may eat until after dark.
And even a poor man in Israel may not eat until he reclines.
And they must not give him less than four cups of wine,
even if it is from the poor dish.
  --- Mishna, Pesachim 10.1

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