Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator  [ca. 62 - 47 BCE; drowned]

The elder son of Ptolemy XII was not yet 12 when his father died (51 BCE), leaving him as co-ruler of Egypt with his older sister, Cleopatra VII. Seeing that he was more pliable than his strong-willed sister, the de facto regent [Pothinus] had Ptolemy designated as senior ruler. That only intensified the sibling rivalry & led to Cleopatra's expulsion from Egypt in the spring of 48 BCE.

Cleopatra's expulsion, however, precipitated open civil war that ended with direct Roman occupation of Egypt. With the support of Arab allies, she laid siege to the Egyptian frontier city of Pelusium. Meanwhile, Ptolemy's Roman patron Pompey, whose forces had been decisively defeated by those of Julius Caesar at the battle of Pharsalus [Greece], sought refuge at Pelusium.  To court the favor of the Roman victor [Caesar], however, the 15 year old king's advisors had him lure Pompey into an ambush as he came ashore. This brought Caesar to Alexandria. Both Ptolemy & Cleopatra were brought to Caesar's camp & forced to accept formal reconciliation. This settlement did not produce civil peace, however. Since Caesar had the legitimate rulers of Egypt in his custody, Pothinus & others in the court of Alexandria championed their sister ArsinoŽ & laid siege to the city of Alexandria. ArsinoŽ, however, quarreled with the leaders of the Egyptian forces.  So they offered to exchange her for Ptolemy who, no longer constrained to submit to a Roman dictated dťtente, took command of the siege. As a strategist, however, the 15 year old god-king was no match for the wily Caesar.  With his troops reinforced by allies from Pergamum [Asia Minor], Caesar broke the siege. Ptolemy drowned while fleeing the battlefield, leaving Caesar in position to dictate the future of Egypt.

References: Caesar, Civil Wars 3.103-112.
                   Plutarch, Pompey 77, 80.
                   _____, Caesar 48-49.
                   Appian, Civil Wars 2.84, 90.

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* [Note: Bevan's numbering of the Ptolemies differs since he drops Ptolemy VII from classical lists because there is no other evidence of his existence].

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