Ptolemy X Alexander  [ca. 140 - 87 BCE]

Unpopular younger son of Ptolemy VIII & Cleopatra III. His father's will gave him control of Cyprus (116 BCE) but a decade later (107 BCE) his mother chose him to replace his older brother (Ptolemy IX Lathyrus) as co-ruler of Egypt. After Cleopatra III died (101 BCE) the brothers were reconciled & the bond sealed by Alexander's marriage to Lathyrus' daughter, Berenice III. His reign was marked by repeated popular rebellions. He was expelled from Alexandria in 88 BCE & retaliated by plundering the tomb of Alexander the Great to pay mercenary troops who restored him to the throne. This so infuriated the people of Alexandria that he was driven into exile again.  He was killed in an attack on Asia Minor.

References: Justin, Epitome 39.4-5.
                  Pausanias, Description of Greece 1.9.1-3.
                  Eusebius, Chronicle: the Egyptians

Other resources on line:

* [Note: Bevan's numbering of the Ptolemies differs since he drops Ptolemy VII from classical lists because there is no historical evidence of his reign].

Silver tetradrachma minted at Alexandria in 104 BCE with diademed image of Ptolemy X. The inscription surrounding the eagle on the reverse reads: [Ptol]emiou Basileos ["of King Ptolemy"].  For high resolution images of this and other coins of Ptolemy X see Ancient Coinage of Egypt, Ptolemy X in David Surber's excellent ancient coins website: Wildwinds.   

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