Parallel Texts in Matthew, Mark & Luke

1. True Kin
Matt 12:46-50 // Mark 3:31-35 // Luke 8:19-21

  context     Greek synopsis     English synopsis     analysis     source hypotheses     variants 

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Greek Text

The reconstruction of the gospel texts below is based on the critical edition of E. Nestle's Novum Testamentum Graece presented with a fuller critical apparatus in Kurt Aland's Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum ed. ii (Stuttgart: Württembergische Bibelanstalt, 1964) pp. 172-173. The matched column format & color coding employed here is the original work of the author of this electronic edition. The accented Greek script used to compose this synopsis is the unicode font, Palatino Linotype.

JESUS'  KIN
Matthew 12 Mark 3 Luke 8
46 Ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος      19  Παρεγέντο
  τοῖς ὄχλοις,  31  Καὶ   δὲ
  ἰδοὺ   ἔρχονται   πρὸς αὐτὸν
  ἡ μήτηρ   ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ   ἡ μήτηρ
  καὶ   καὶ   καὶ
  οἱ ἀδελϕοὶ αὐτου   οἱ ἀδελϕοὶ αὐτοῦ,   οἱ ἀδελϕοὶ αὐτοῦ,
  εἱστήκεισαν ἔξω   καὶ ἔξω στήκοντες   καὶ
  ζητοῦντες   ἀπέστειλαν   οὐκ ἠδύναντο
  αὐτ   πρὸς αὐτὸν   συντυχεῖν αὐτ
  λαλῆσαι.   καλοῦντες αῦτόν.  
    32 καὶ ἐκάϑητο    
      περὶ αὐτὸν    
    ὄχλος,   διὰ τὸν ὄχλον.
47** [εἴπεν δὲ τις   καὶ λέγουσιν 20 ἀπηγγέλη δὲ
  αὐτῷ·   αὐτῷ·   αὐτῷ·
  ἰδοὺ   ἰδοὺ  
  ἡ μήτηρ σου   ἡ μήτηρ σου   ἡ μήτηρ σου
  καὶ   καὶ   καὶ
  οἱ ἀδελϕοὶ σου   οἱ ἀδελϕοὶ σου   οἱ ἀδελϕοὶ σου
    [καὶ  
  *** αἱ ἀδελϕαὶ σου]  
  ἔξω ἐστήκασιν   ἔξω   ἐστήκασιν ἔξω
  ζητοῦντές σοι   ζητουσίν σε.   ἰδεῖν ϑέλοντές σε.
  λαλῆσαι.]    
48 ὁ δὲ ἀποκριϑεὶς 33 καὶ ἀποκριϑεὶς 21 ὁ δὲ ἀποκριϑεὶς
  εἶπεν     εἶπεν
  τῷ λέγοντι αὐτῷ·   αὐτοῖς λέγει·   πρὸς αὐτούς·
  τίς ἐστιν   τίς ἐστιν    
  ἡ μήτηρ μοῦ,   ἡ μήτηρ μοῦ,  
  καὶ τινές εἰσὶν   καὶ    
  οἱ ἀδελϕοί μοῦ;   οἱ ἀδελϕοί;  
49 καὶ ἐκτείνας 34 καὶ περιβλεψάμενος  
  τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ   τοὺς περὶ αὐτὸν    
  ἐπὶ τοὺς μαϑητὰς   κύκλῳ καϑημένους  
  αὐτοῦ    
  εἶπεν·   λέγει·  
  ἰδοὺ   ἴδε  
  μήτηρ μου   μήτηρ μου   μήτηρ μου
  καὶ   καὶ   καὶ
  οἱ ἀδελϕοί μου.   οἱ ἀδελϕοί μου.   ἀδελϕοί μου
50 ὅστις γὰρ ἂν 35 ὃς ἂν   οὗτοί
  ποιήσῃ*   ποιήσῃ*   εἰσιν
  τὸ ϑέλμα   τὸ ϑέλμα   οἱς τὸν λόγον
  τοῦ πατρός μου   τοῦ ϑεοῦ,   τοῦ ϑεοῦ
  τοῦ ἐν οὐρανοῖς     ἀκούοντες
  αὐτός μου ἀδελϕός   οὗτος ἀδελϕός μου    
  καὶ ἀδελϕὴ,   καὶ ἀδελϕὴ,    
  καὶ μήτηρ   καὶ μήτηρ    
  ἐστιν.   ἐστιν.   καὶ ποιοῦντες.*

** Note: Matt 12:47 is not in the two earliest codices (before 400 CE): Sinaiticus & Vaticanus. But it is found in most mss. after 400 CE. Which explanation of these facts is more plausible?

  • It was omitted by accident. Scribes copying a ms. in which the same words occurred a line or so apart sometimes omitted the words between them. Note that the ending of Matt 12:47 echoes the narrative in Matt 12:46. Or...

  • It was added by later scribes to bring Matthew in line with the other synoptic versions of this anecdote. Note parallels to Luke 8:20.

If Matt 12:47 was missing from later mss., a scribal lapse would be clear. But since it is lacking in both of the oldest mss., accidental omission is less likely. This verse was in the Diatesseron, a 2nd c. harmony of the four gospels. But there is no evidence for it in Greek mss. of Matthew before the 5th c. CE.

*** Note: This reference to Jesus' sisters in Mark 3:32 is found in the orthodox Byzantine recension and a few other 5th c. mss. (notably codex Alexandrinus and codex Bezae) but not in codices of the 4th c. CE (Sinaiticus & Vaticanus) or other mss. of the Egyptian recension. Which explanation of these facts is more plausible?

  • It was omitted by accident. Scribes copying a ms. might overlook the second of two phrases with similar wording.  In Greek the only difference between "brothers" (οἱ ἀδελϕοί) and "sisters" (αἱ ἀδελϕαί) are in vowels that look similar (ο and α). Or...

  • It was inserted by some later scribe to account for the reference to "sister" (ἀδελϕὴ) in Jesus' climactic pronouncement (Mark 3:35).

If the phrase καὶ αἱ ἀδελϕαὶ σοῦ was missing from later mss., a scribal lapse would be clear. But since it is lacking in the oldest mss., accidental omission is less likely.  If this phrase was part of the original text at this point, it is odd that there is no mention of the presence of Jesus' sisters in any version of the narrative introduction to this scene or in Jesus' rhetorical question in Mark 3:34

Color Code
 Blue  Three gospels use same vocabulary.
 Teal  Two gospels use same vocabulary.
 Black   Words unique to a particular gospel.
*  Same word, different order.

 

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last revised 21 December 2015

 

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