Philip I Philadelphus  [exiled 83 BCE]

After Antiochus XI was killed (92 BCE), Cleopatra IV supported the attempt of his younger brother, Philip -- the third son of Antiochus VIII  -- to regain control of Syria from his cousin Antiochus X. He succeeded in occupying much of western Syria but faced additional competition from his own younger brother Demetrius III, who was supported by Cleopatra's son & rival Ptolemy VII. After the death of Antiochus X, he & Demetrius divided Syria between them. When Demetrius sought to take sole control of the Seleucid empire, however, Philip defeated & exiled him with the aid of the Parthians (87 BCE). Philip then claimed Antioch, but before he could consolidate his power he faced a new rival in the person of his youngest brother Antiochus XII, who seized control of Demetrius' former capitol, Damascus. Though Philip briefly occupied Damascus while Antiochus was off fighting the Arabs, he was forced to abandon it when his younger brother returned. That humiliation encouraged the citizens of Antioch to drive him into exile & recognize Tigranes of Armenia as their ruler. Though Philip outlasted his sibling rivals, he could not effectively control the Seleucid empire but was at best a client & pawn of other powers.

References: Josephus, Antiquities 13.369-371, 384-389.                  

Other resources on line:

Silver tetradrachma of diademed Philip I with figure of enthroned Zeus on reverse side, flanked by the inscription (reading from right to left) Baslieou Philippou Epiphanou Philadelphou ["of King Philip Philadelphos (God) Manifest"]. Ironically when Rome conquered Syria they continued to mint copies of this coin proclaiming the divinity of one of the last & weakest of Seleucid rulers.

For high resolution images of this & other coins of Philip see Browsing Ancient Coinage of Seleucia: Philip Philadelphus in David Surber's excellent ancient coins website: Wildwinds.

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