IHO Index ] [ Map ] [ House of Ptolemy ] House of Seleucus ] [ House of Caesar ] [ House of Herod
[ Hasmonean Dynasty ] [ Antiochus Epiphanes
 ] [ Maccabean Revolt ] Hasmonean Regime ] [ Search ]

Click on name for biographical sketch

 BCE Greece    Asia Minor   Syria   Judea   Egypt
346 Philip II
 ( b. 382 BCE) 

king of Macedonia
[359 - 336 BCE]

leader of Delphic league
[346 - 336 BCE]
  Artaxerxes III Ochus

king of Persia
[reigned 359 - 338 BCE]
poisoned

344  
342  
340  
338   Artaxerxes IV Arses
[reigned 338 - 336 BCE]
336 Alexander III
"the Great"
(b. 356 BCE)

[ruled 336-323 BCE]

    Darius III
king of Persia
 [reigned 336 - 330 BCE]
334  
332  

330

328
326
324
322 Antipater
(b. ca. 397 BCE)
[regent 334 - 319 BCE]
 

Antigonus I
Monophthalmus

(b.  382 BCE)

 

Perdiccas
[regent 323 - 320 BCE]

    Ptolemy I Soter   
(b. 367 BCE)
320       governor
[323 305 BCE]
318 Polyperchon
[regent 319 - 317 BCE]
  claimed regency
 [315 - 311 BCE]
 
316 Cassander
regent
[317 - 309 BCE]

 

   
314    
312    
310    
308    
306    
304 king
[305 - 297 BCE]
  king
[306 - 301 BCE]
  king
[305 - 282 BCE]
302    
300   Lysimachus

(b. ca. 355 BCE)

governor
of Thrace
[323 BCE]

king
[305 - 282 BCE]

  Seleucus I
NIcator

(b.  358 BCE)

governor
of Babylon
[321 BCE]

king
[305 - 281 BCE]

   
298      
296 Demetrius
Poliorcetes

(336 - 283 BCE)


king
[294 - 288 BCE]

     
294      
292      
290      
288      
286      
284      
282    

 

Ptolemy II
 Philadelphus

(b. 308 BCE)

co-ruler
[290 - 282 BCE]

king
[282 -246 BCE]

280 Gallic      
278  Invasion Antiochus I
Soter

(b. 324 BCE)
 
276  

Antigonus II
Gonatas


(b.  319 BCE)

king
[276 - 239 BCE]

   
274   king
[280 - 261 BCE]

 

 
272    

270

   
268    
266    
264    
262    
260    

Antiochus II
Theos

(b. 324 BCE)

king
[261 - 246 BCE]

 

 
258    
256    
254    
252    
250    
248    

246

   

Antiochus
Hierax

(b. 263 BCE)

 

   

Seleucus II
Callinicus

(b.  265 BCE)

king
[246 - 225 BCE]

   

Ptolemy III
 Euergetes

(b. ca. 280 BCE)

king
[246 - 221 BCE]

244      
242      

240

     
238 Demetrius II
(b. 276 BCE)

king
[239 - 229 BCE]

     
236      
234      
232      
230      
228 Antigonus III
Doson

(b.  263 BCE)

king
[227 - 220 BCE]

  Attalus I
of Pergamum

(b. 269 BCE)

king
[238-197 BCE]

 
226

224

    Seleucus III
Soter
 
222        
220 Philip V

(b. 238 BCE)

king
[221 - 179 BCE]

 

     

 

Ptolemy IV
 Philopator

(b. ca. 280 BCE)

king
[221 - 205 BCE]

 

218  

Antiochus III
"the Great"

(b. 242 BCE)

king
[223 - 187 BCE]

 

216  
214  
212  
210  

208

 

206

 
204    

 

Ptolemy V
 Epiphanes

(b. ca. 210 BCE)

king
[205 - 180 BCE]

 

202    
200    
198    
196

 

   

194

   
192    

190

under
"protection"
of
the
Roman
Republic
     
188    
186  

Seleucus IV
Philopator

(b.  217 BCE)

king
[187 - 175 BCE]

 

 
184    
182    
180     Cleopatra I
Syra

[regent 180 - 177]
178    
176      

Ptolemy VI
 Philometor

(b. ca. 186 BCE)

king
[180 - 145 BCE]

 

174  

Antiochus IV
Epiphanes

(b. ca. 215 BCE)

king
[175 - 164 BCE]

 
172    
170    
168    
166    
164  

Antiochus V
Eupator

 
162  

Demetrius I
Soter

(b. ca. 187 BCE)

king
[162 - 150 BCE]

 

 
160    
158    
156    
154    
152    
150   Alexander
Balas

ruled
[150 - 145 BCE]
 
148    
146    
144   Demetrius II
Nicator

ruled
[145 - 139 BCE]
 

 

Ptolemy VIII
 Physcon

(b. ca. 182 BCE)

co-ruler
[170 - 164 BCE]

ruler
[145 - 116 BCE]

142    
140    
138  

Antiochus VII
Sidetes

(b. ca. 159 BCE)

ruled
[139 - 129 BCE]

 
136    
134    
132    
130    
128   Demetrius II
Nicator

[129 - 125 BCE]
   

Johanan
Hyrcanus

high priest
[134 BCE]

king
[129 - 104 BCE]

 

 
126      
124     Cleopatra Thea
regent
[129 - 120 BCE]
   
122      
120    

kingdom
divided
between

Antiochus VIII
Grypus
[125 - 96 BCE]

&

Antiochus IX
Cyzenicus
[116 - 95 BCE]

   
118      
116      

Cleopatra III
(b. ca 155 BCE)

co-ruler
[127 - 115 BCE]

senior ruler
[115-101 BCE]

 

114      
112      
110      
108      
106      
104     Aristobulus I  
102      

Alexander
Jannai

king
[103-76 BCE]

 
100      

Ptolemy X
 Alexander

(b. ca. 140 BCE)

co-ruler
[107-101 BCE]

ruler
[101 - 88 BCE]

98      
96      
94   civil
war
between
sons
of
Antiochus VIII
&
Antiochus IX 
   
92      
90      
88      

Ptolemy IX
 Lathyrus

co-ruler
[117-107 BCE]

ruler
[88 - 80 BCE]

86      
84      
82      

Cleopatra
Selene

regent
[83 - 69 BCE]

 

   
80       Ptolemy XII
 Auletes

(b. ca. 112 BCE)

ruler
[80 - 51 BCE]

78      
76      

Salome
Alexandra

regent
[76 - 67 BCE]

 
74      
72      
70      
68   Antiochus XIII
[68 - 64 BCE]
   
66     Aristobulus II
[67 - 63 BCE]
 
64  

Pompey

first triumvirate
[60 -48 BCE]

   
62    

Hyrcanus II

high priest
[63 - 40 BCE]

 
60    
58    
56    
54    
52    
50    

Cleopatra VII
Thea Philopator

(b. 69 BCE)

co-ruler
[51 - 47 BCE]

senior ruler
[47- 30 BCE]

 

48 Julius Caesar
dictator
[47 -44 BCE]
   
46    
44

Roman civil war

   
42 Marc Antony

(b. 82 BCE)

2nd  triumvirate
[43 -38 BCE]

 

   
40   Parthian rule  
38  

Herod
"the Great"

king
[39 - 04 BCE]

 

 
36    
34    
32    
30    

NOTE

This space/timeline  is a schematic diagram of the tenure of major protagonists in the power struggles that shaped the history of Hellenism in the eastern Mediterranean basin during the last 3 centuries BCE.  It begins with the election of Philip II as leader [hegemon] of the league of Greek city states and ends with the death of Cleopatra VII in Egypt.  While this has classically been dubbed the "Hellenistic era" due to the spread of Greek culture, most of the ruling families of the era were actually Macedonians rather than natives of Hellas [Greece].

Both the personnel & the territory they controlled have been simplified to facilitate graphic representation. This chart depicts the terms of nominal regents rather than co-rulers & challengers who influenced or even determined their actions.  The regions identify the general location of rulers' power bases, rather than their native land or the borders of territory they controlled in any given year. Non-Macedonians from beyond the regions listed are introduced here only if they occupied territory on the eastern Mediterranean rim. The relative influence of each ruler is approximated by the intensity of the color within a given dynasty. Female regents are represented by the color of their family of birth rather than marriage. 

The limits of graphic representation have made it necessary to ignore other territory controlled by Macedonian regimes [e.g, Babylon & Macedonia proper] as well as fluctuations that had no lasting effect upon the balance of power in the region [e.g., temporary conquests or retreats, exiles, internal revolts, rival claimants].   All non-Macedonian rulers -- other than native dynasties such as the Hasmoneans & Herodians -- are represented in shades of gray.

Key
       Argead dynasty            Ptolemaic dynasty
     Antigonid dynasty      Seleucid dynastry
     House of Antipater        Hasmonean dynasty 
     Other regents for Alexander's heirs       Other native ruler
     Non-dynastic ruler      Foreign rulers
 Philip  Click on highlighted name for biographical sketch.
 

For an annotated time-line of the Hellenistic world from 357 - 30 BCE see:

Peter H. Stearns, ed. The Encyclopedia of World History.  Sixth edition (Boston/New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2001), pp. 69-85.

Other resources on line:

IHO Index ] [ Map ] [ House of Ptolemy ] House of Seleucus ] [ House of Caesar ] [ House of Herod
[ Hasmonean Dynasty ] [ Antiochus Epiphanes
 ] [ Maccabean Revolt ] Hasmonean Regime ] [ Search ]

   

Perspective on the World of Jesus

with new translations from primary texts

Copyright 1999-2017 by Mahlon H. Smith
All rights reserved.

an American Theological Library Association Selected Religion Website 
OCLC World catalog no. 62046512

[Hypertext links to this web page are invited. Brief quotations may be used in scholarly reviews and research providing the author is credited & the URL for this web page properly noted. But the text as a whole may not be posted or reproduced elsewhere without express written permission of the author.]