Antipater II  [murdered 43 BCE]

Patriarch of the Herodian dynasty. He was the grandson of Antipater I, who had served Alexander Jannai & Salome Alexandra as chief of Idumea. While Jewish sources [Josephus & the Talmud] regularly characterized Antipater's family as wealthy Edomites, Herod's gentile biographer [Nicholas of Damascus] portrayed them as Babylonian Jews & they were accepted as Jews by all contemporaries. Antipater II rose to prominence in Jewish politics as champion of Hyrcanus II & leader of Jews opposed to Aristobulus II. His marriage to a Nabataean [Jordanian] aristocrat gave him Arab allies whom he called on to force Aristobulus into exile. During & after the ensuing Hasmonean civil war, the Roman general Pompey treated Antipater as leader of the Jews. After Pompey was murdered (48 BCE), Antipater sent substantial support to Julius Caesar's Egyptian campaign against Cleopatra VII. Caesar rewarded Antipater by making him & his family full citizens of Rome. This gave Antipater's family an important role in Roman politics & diplomacy for the next 140 years. His appointment as Roman procurator [epitropos] of Judea gave him authority to appoint his sons, Phasael & Herod, as governors of Jerusalem & Galilee. After Julius Caesar's assassination (44 BCE), Caesar's nemesis Cassius occupied Syria & ordered Antipater to collect tribute from the Jews. He was poisoned by a rival tax collector. Even the Hasmonean historian Josephus later eulogized him as "distinguished for piety, justice & devotion to his country" [Antiquities 14.283].

References: Josephus, Antiquities 14.8-19, 37, 99-103, 120-143, 156-167, 269-293.
                   ______, War 1.123-124, 130-131, 175-283.

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