The dynamic youngest son of Demetrius
I. When his older brother, Demetrius
II, was captured & held hostage by the Parthians (139
Antiochus married his brother's wife, Cleopatra
Thea, & claimed kingship for himself to rescue the Seleucid
dynasty from the usurper Trypho.
After Trypho's defeat, Antiochus claimed
political suzerainty over Palestine. When the Jews resisted, he invaded Judea,
& tore down its walls (134
BCE). But to gain Jewish allegiance,
he granted them religious freedom & confirmed Johanan
Hyrcanus, as high priest.
With Judea again under Seleucid control,
Antiochus set out to reclaim the eastern provinces with considerable
success. To stall his rapid advance, the Parthians released
Demetrius II -- the nominal Seleucid king (129
BCE), who had been their
hostage for a decade. Before Antiochus could adjust to this unexpected
development, he was slain by the Parthians in a surprise attack.
Though Demetrius reclaimed the Seleucid throne, his empire soon
disintegrated into all out civil war.
236-254, 261-263, 271-273.
of Rome: Syrian Wars
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