Antiochus III "the Great"  [242 -187 BCE; murdered]

The younger son of Seleucus II succeeded his assassinated brother, Seleucus III in 223 BCE.  Though barely 19, he immediately set out to regain the territory that his father & brother had lost.  By a show of force & skillful diplomacy he formed alliances with neighboring rulers from Pergamum to northern India, often allowing opponents to retain their thrones in exchange for tribute. By 205 BCE he had formed such an extensive system of vassal kingdoms to the East that he adopted the ancient Persian title of "the great king" & promoted a royal cult in which he was worshipped as a god. His Greek subjects compared him to Alexander the Great.  

Turning his attention to western territories he formed an alliance with Philip V of Macedon against Ptolemy V of Egypt.  In 200 BCE he defeated the Egyptian forces at Panias (Lebanon) and claimed control of Palestine & Phoenicia. The Jewish temple state of Jerusalem was granted special privileges for recognizing his suzerainty. Pressing his military advantage, Antiochus invaded Egypt itself, forcing a peace treaty (195 BCE) that finally formalized Ptolemaic recognition of Seleucid control of Syria & Palestine, territory that had been claimed by Seleucus I a century earlier. 

But Antiochus did not rest on that victory. When Philip was defeated by the Romans, Antiochus led his forces to regain the cities of western Asia minor that his father had lost.  Not content with having extended Seleucid control over more territory than any of his predecessors, he defied Roman warnings by crossing into Europe.  Conflict with Rome became unavoidable when Antiochus gave refuge to Hannibal of Carthage & made him his military advisor.  He was routed by the Romans & their allies at Thermopylae in Greece & Magnesia, Asia Minor (191-190 BCE).  To conclude a peace treaty he had to abandon western Asia Minor & allow his youngest son, (who later ruled as Antiochus IV), to be taken to Rome as a hostage.

He was killed at a temple of Ba'al in Susa a few years later, while exacting tribute to replenish the depleted royal treasury.

References: Josephus, Antiquities 12.129-154, 223, 414.
                  Appian, History of Rome: Syrian Wars 1-44
                  Cassius Dio, Roman History 19.18-20

Other resources on line:

Surprisingly the royal cult sponsored by Antiochus III is not reflected in any of the currency he issued. Instead his coins minted at Antioch bore traditional Seleucid iconography. The face of the silver tetradrachma at the left above bears the diademed king's likeness. The reverse side (center) portrays Apollo with bow & arrow seated on a phallic stone with the same simple inscription, Basileos Antiochou ("of King Antiochus"), used by predecessors with the same name [cf. Antriochus I & Antiochus II]. Instead of the Greek mythological imagery, however, Antiochus III's coins minted in less Hellenized regions used traditional local symbols on their reverse side. Those made in eastern provinces like Nisibis (Assyria) portrayed an elephant (right), while those minted in western Semitic centers like Tyre (Phoenicia) featured a date palm (not shown).

For high resolution of these and other coins of Antiochus III see Ancient Coinage of Seleucia, Antiochos III in David Surber's excellent ancient coins website: Wildwinds.

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