Given Hebrew name: Mattatayah
Ninth & last Hasmonean
to claim control of Judea. The ambitious younger
son of Aristobulus
II, with his older brother,
led several futile Jewish rebellions against the Romans (57-55 BCE)
during their father's imprisonment, which only increased Rome's
suspicions of independence-minded Jews. The murder of Antipater
(43 BCE) -- the chief supporter of his uncle, Hyrcanus
II -- led Antigonus to launch a
last attempt to seize control of Judea.
He was defeated in battle by Antipater's younger son, Herod.
But Antigonus allied himself with the Parthians, who were
challenging Rome for control of Syria & Palestine. Proclaiming
Antigonus "king" [basileus], a Parthian force
(40 BCE), deposed Hyrcanus from the high-priesthood & held
Herod's older brother, Phasael, hostage. Herod, however, escaped
& rallied Roman support. With his Parthian allies bested by Marc
Antony, Antigonus was
isolated & eventually captured in Jerusalem by Herod (37 BCE),
who delivered him to the Romans at Antioch, where he was beheaded:
the first "king" to be so executed at the hands of Rome.
14.297-298, 330-346, 365-368, 379-418, 457-490.
1.173-174, 195-198, 248-254, 269-303, 317-319, 353, 357.
Cassius Dio, Roman
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